In Hinduism, each day of a week is dedicated to a particular god in the Hindu pantheon. Apart from the special Vrata and Upvas, many Hindus also fast on a particular day in a week. Each day in a week has a specialty and there are numerous folklores associated with the fasting observed on the days of a week.

According to Hindu Mythology each day of a week is dedicated to a particular God as well as a planet. Miracles do happen by observing a particular Vrat or fast. All rituals and observations are easy ways to please the planets and their respective Gods. Vedic Astrology helps us to understand the nature and characters of planets and also help us to know that why we are suffering so many problems due to the incorrect placement or inauspicious planets. So it’s high time you should consult an expert astrologer who can suggest you the particular vrat, mantra and means to ward off these problems. It can automatically improve all sufferings. Vrata is a Sanskrit word that means “vow, resolve, devotion” and refers to pious observances such as fasting and temple visit.

It is considered that we get success, failure, wealth, poverty, fame, insult, life and death according to our karma. We get good and bad results according to the correct and incorrect placement of planets. In order to drive away the negative effects of related planets we should recite mantra and observe fast related to the respective planets. But you are advised that you should consider an expert astrologer so that he can suggest the correct day and fast according to the weak and inauspicious planet in our horoscope.

Hindu devotees keep occasional ‘Upvas’ or fast corresponding to the fulfilment of a vow or a belief and ‘vratas’ (fasting and observance of religious rituals) that is analogous with material or other gains. Apart from these special occasions, many devotees also fast on a particular day of the week dedicated to a particular god in the Hindu pantheon to appease him/her. Ancient sages used observances like ritual fasts to spread the awareness of different gods. Fasting and other rituals pave the path of the divine for the devotees to realize god, which is considered the sole purpose of human existence.

A typical Vrata involves a fast for a fixed period of time, usually a full day, where either no food is eaten or only one meal is eaten in the entire day, or only a certain food such as milk is consumed during the period of the Vrata. Other observances include sleeping on the ground or a short sleep, or alternatively yoga with meditation, reading scripture and charitable giving.

The puranas denote various types of vratas. ‘Kayika-vrata’ pertains to the body. The stress is on physical austerity like fasting. ‘Vachika-vrata’ or vrata pertaining to speech. Here much importance is given to speaking the truth and reciting the scriptures. ‘Manasa-vrata’ or vrata pertaining to the mind. The emphasis here is on controlling the mind, by controlling the passions and prejudices that arise in it.

Rules to be followed by those undertaking vrata

It is difficult for the common man to perform rituals according to Vedas. To overcome this difficulty, Puranas mention vrata, which are easy to follow.

  1. Strict compliance – Any vrata should be followed meticulously. Once undertaken, we should not think of the hardships while observing it.
  2. Completion is necessary – If one begins a vrat, it should be completed; as giving up half way through could be disastrous. Scriptures also recommend ‘penance’ if there is a break in a vrat, deliberate or by accident.
  3. Rules
    1. Wake up during Brahma muhurta (one and half-hour before sunrise).
    2. Bathing – One should bathe every day.
    3. Clothing and ornaments – When observing a vrat we should use ‘gandh’ (sandalwood paste), flowers, a chain of beads and clothing and ornaments to suit the vrat.
    4. Eating meals and urination and defecation should be done at the appropriate time.
    5. Puja of the Deity – Puja of the Deity for whose sake the vrat has been undertaken should be performed. We should chant the Deity’s Name, meditate, listen to His / Her stories, worship, perform kirtans (narration of the glory of God through stories punctuated with devotional songs) and read religious texts.
    6. Meals – Should be limited. Salty foods, honey and meat are prohibited.
  4. Restrictions: One should refrain from doing the following things
    1. Application of oil to the body and head, sabhyang snan.
    2. Eating betel leaves
    3. Application of fragrant substances to the body,
    4. Actions that will decrease physical and mental strength such as anger, greed, attachment, laziness, etc. to be avoided.
    5. Smoking
    6. Sleeping during the day
    7. Stealing.
    8. Sexual Intercourse
  5. Careful cultivation of virtues – Carefully cultivate qualities like forgiveness, truthfulness, compassion, generosity etc.
  6. Puja of the Guru and Deities should be performed and they should be honoured.
  7. Offering meals – Guru, married women, kanya (young virgin girls) and guests should be offered meals. If possible, offer food to orphans, old age homes, destitute and poor.
  8.  Donation – Cattle, wealth, ornaments etc. should be donated. (according to your capacity)
  9. Even if a woman gets her menses during a vrata, it does not pose any obstruction to her in completing the vrata.
  10. The sankalp – It is necessary to make a sankalp when commencing and concluding a vrat. If this is not done, then the observance is not fruitful. Standing facing the north and holding a copper vessel filled with water in the hand, one should make the sankalp for the vrat. The northern direction is favourable for spiritual progress.

Sunday

God:  Sunday is dedicated to Lord Surya – the Sun God.

The lord Surya is the lord of all the planets on the heavenly body and the most powerful one and is considered as the soul of the universe according to Hindu Mythology. Lord Surya gives knowledge, divinity and performance, power, position, authority, glory, name, reputation, force and makes one a ruler or a kingly person.

In today’s world, we all are so rushed for time and have no time to think for ourselves. In such a scenario, we can take so many lessons from the Sun God. He is multifaceted, immensely co-ordinated and does his duties with full commitment. The Sun Lord is always awake and encompasses everything that is under him and provides bright sunlight to each and every person on this planet. The rays of sunlight heal many diseases, especially those with eyes and skin, it also increases immunity. The sun provides energy to everything that we do, whether it is solar energy or heat energy, it makes the world a cleaner and better place to live in. The Sun is also directly responsible for giving us life, had there been no Sun, there would have been no food in the world. It is said that offering a glass of water to the Sun God every morning while chanting “Om Suryaya Namah” can help us get rid of all our problems.

Ritual: Complete morning ablutions, bath and cleaning the house and surrounding, devotees should offer red colour flowers to Surya and apply red sandalwood paste as ’tilak’ on your forehead. Keep fast throughout the day and eat food only once before sunset and avoid salt, oil and fried food items. Ravivar Vrat or Sunday fasts help in fulfilling one’s wishes and curing all kinds of skin diseases.

Surya Mantra

“Namah Suryaya Shantaya Sarvaroga Nivaarine

Ayu rarogya maisvairyam dehi devah jagatpate”

“Aadhitya Hrudhaya Punyam Sarva Sathru Vinaasanam

Jayaavaham Jabe nithyam Akshayam Paramam Shivam ||”

Monday

God – Monday is dedicated to Lord Shiva.

It is said that Lord Siva is easily pleased. Those devotees observing fast on Mondays eat food once only. People visit Lord Siva shrines and conduct pujas, especially, Ardhanarishwara puja.

On Monday, it is advised to worship Lord Shiva or Sivalinga with cold Milk, Bilva leaves, Bhang, Dhatura and Panchamrit. The mantra ‘Om Namah Sivaya’ is chanted continuously. You may also recite this sloka.

Shivam shivakaram, shantham shivathmanam, Shivothamam,

Shivamarga pranetharam,  pranamami sada shivam.

Maha Mrityunjaya Homam can also be performed on Mondays. Siva devotees also read Siva Purana. Unmarried women observe the Vrat to get good husbands. Others observe it for a happy and prosperous family life. To get rid of all health issues one should chant Maha Mruthyunjay Mantra 108 times on this day.

“Oṃ tryaṃbakaṃ yajamahe sugandhiṃ puṣṭivardhanam

urvarukamiva bandhanan mṛtyor mukṣiya mamṛta”

Solah Somvar Vrat (16 consecutive Mondays) – Upvas, or fasting, on Mondays, begins at sunrise and ends at sunset. On the day, food is eaten once only, after evening prayer. Lord Siva and Goddess Parvati are worshipped on the day. Of course, no worship begins without remembering Lord Ganesha. The fasting on Mondays in the Shravan month is considered even more auspicious.

People observe Monday fast to fulfil their wishes. It could be anything from good health, happy life, prosperity, domestic happiness, marriage and many other things. If there is any dosha in your marriage astrology, your marriage may delay.  Mainly unmarried women observe this as it helps them to get a good husband like Siva. If they can continue this for 16 consecutive Mondays, they can please Lord Shiva and get a good husband. One should observe fasting with a pure heart and complete devotion. Get rid of all negativities away from you to get a good outcome out of this fasting.

Tuesday

God – Tuesday is dedicated to Lord Ganesha, Durga, Goddess Kali and Lord Hanuman.

Most devotees visit Devi and Hanuman shrines. In South India, the day is dedicated to Skanda or Muruga or Subramanya. Lord Ganesha is one of the few Hindu Gods, who is said to solve all kinds of troubles and touch all aspects of human life with his holy presence. Hindus worship Lord Ganesha before starting any puja or important task. There are many ways you can offer Pooja to Lord  Ganesha and easiest way is offering him plate full of Modak  or offering Sindhoor, Erukku flowers, banana, white flowers, etc.

Hanuman is the symbol of courage, strength, wisdom and victory. He vanquishes all evils and brings success. The worshippers of Hanuman who recites Hanuman Chalisa will gain enormous physical and mental strength and courage to succeed in life. To be successful in life one must be strong physically, mentally, intellectually and socially. Hanuman is a symbol of all the four and you pray him to be like him or to get his blessings to be like him. Physically Hanuman is the strongest; he can carry mountains, jump across oceans and defeat any person on earth due to his prowess. His body is hard as diamond (Vajra). He can execute any task assigned at the speed of thought (manojavam) and has superior intelligence. Finally one must have uncompromising discipline in whatever one do and that is only possible if we overcome temptations (Jitendrium).

Lord Muruga is a master of many great qualities and divine attributes. His worship shall help the devotees overcome the three prime impediments of Karma (destiny), Maya (illusion) and Ahankar (ego). They would also be blessed with courage, confidence, determination, knowledge, skills, intelligence, and wisdom. Muruga is also the overlord of the warrior planet Mars and worshiping him shall help people to get relief from the malefic effects of the fiery planet. Planet Mars is also known for causing legal issues, and people in particular, who are entangled in litigations should worship Lord Muruga, for coming out of them successfully. Performing Poojas and Homas to Lord Muruga shall prove immensely beneficial for achieving their ends.

Upvas (fasting) on the day is dedicated to Hanuman and Mangal or Mars. Mangalwar, Tuesday, takes its name from the god Mangal or Mars who rules the day and is considered to be a troublemaker, and the fast is to ward off the harmful effects. Red is the preferred colour on the day. Those people who fast avoid taking food containing salt at night.

Mangalvar Vrat is observed by those couples who wish to have a son. People who have violent and fiery attitude should observe the Tuesday fast to cool down their anger. Boys can keep this fast for growing there intelligence and strength. This Vrat helps in making the business successful. Worshipping Lord Hanuman gives freedom from all kinds of sins like vocal or mental etc and the person achieve happiness, wealth and profit. On the day of Tuesday fast, you should have pure thoughts.

Depending upon the God you are praying the following slokas can be recited multiple times

Hanuman

Manojavam Maruta tulya vegam  Jitendriyem budhimatham Varishtam

Vatatmajam Vanarayutha mukhyam, Shri Rama Dhootham Shirasanamaami

Ganesha

Vakra-Tunda Maha-Kaya Surya-Koti Samaprabha

Nirvignam Kuru Me Deva Sarva-Karyesu Sarvada

Subramanya

Shadananam kumkuma raktha varnam, Mahamadhim divya mayura vahanam.

Rudrasya soonam, sura sainya natham,  Guham satha, sharanam aham prabadhyey.

Wednesday

God – Budvar, Wednesday, is dedicated to Lord Krishna and the planet Budh or Mercury.

The day is also associated with Lord Vithal, an incarnation of Krishna. Green colour leaves, especially Tulsi leaves, are used in Pujas. The day is highly auspicious for starting new ventures and it is believed that those who observe the Vrat are bound to get blessed with fortunes. People also give alms on the day.  In some regions, Lord Vishnu is worshiped. Keeping a fast (Upvas) on Budhvar is believed to help in leading a peaceful family life.

Those devotees who undertake a fast on the day only take a single meal in the afternoon. The fasting is observed mainly by husband and wife together. The green color is considered highly auspicious on the day. In Astrology, mercury is considered compassionate and generous. Mercury is usually depicted riding a lion.

Wednesday, also known as Budhavar, is the day of Budha or Mercury, who is regarded as the wisest and youngest of planets and considered as a symbol of knowledge, wisdom and wealth. Wednesday is an auspicious day in Hinduism as it is associated with Lord Krishna and the planet Mercury. Chanting mantras bring immediate and lasting relief from the difficulties in life and grants the devotee his heart’s desire. Fasting on Wednesday brings harmony in personal relationships, wealth, better intellectual capacities and overall success in life.

Recite Srikrishna stotram on Wednesdays

Vasu deva sutham devam Kamsa Chanura mardhanam,

Devaki paramanandam Krishnam vande jagat gurum.

Thursday

God – Thursday is dedicated to Lord Vishnu, his incarnations and Guru Brihaspati.

Pujas are conducted using milk, ghee etc. Food is only consumed once during the day and includes Chana Dal (Bengal Gram) and ghee. Basically, yellow coloured food is eaten on the day. In some regions, banana or plantain is worshipped and watered. People read Srimad Bhagavad Purana on the day. Thursday, which is called Brihaspatiwar is also dedicated to Brihaspati, the Guru of Devas.

Yellow is the colour of the day. In some areas, people make it a point to visit Hanuman Temple on Thursdays. Those who perform pujas and Vrata on Thursdays will be blessed with wealth and happy life.

Recite Lord Vishnu prayers on Thursday

Shaanthakaaram Bhujagashayanam. Padmanabham suresham,

Vishwadharam gaganasadrusham meghavarnam shubhangam

Lakshmi kantham kamalanayanam Yogibhir Dhyaana Gamyam

Vandhe vishnum bhavabhayaharam sarvalokayeeka Natham.

Friday

God – Friday is dedicated to Mother Goddess – Mahalakshmi, Santhosi Ma, Annapurneshwari and Durga.

Worship of Shakti – Durga, Kali and other forms – on Friday is considered highly auspicious. Shakti temples in India attract a large number of devotees on this day. Devotees wear a white coloured dress on this day. The fasting on Shukravar begins at sunrise and ends with sunset. The person fasting only partakes in the evening meal. White coloured food like kheer or milk is the most preferred.

Another deity that is propitiated on the day is Shukra, who is known to provide joy and material wealth. The period of Shukra in one’s astrological chart is considered to be most productive and lucky period.

Fast is kept for various reasons, which include removal of obstacles, for a child, happy family life etc. There are numerous stories associated with Shukravar. In almost all the stories, Lord Shukra or Venus is dishonoured in the beginning and the devotee later realizes his/her folly through numerous untoward incidents. Then the devotee realizes the mistake and propitiates Shukra and is finally rewarded. Sweets are distributed on the day.

Recite Devi sthuthi on Fridays

Sarva Mangala Maangallyey, Shivey Sarvaartha Saadhikey,

Sharanyey Thrayambakey gauri, Narayanee Namosthuthey.

Saturday

God – Shani Dev

Saturday is dedicated to alleviating the bad influence of Lord Shani. The Vrat on this day is mainly observed by those people who believe in Hindu astrology. Black is the colour of the day and people visit Shani shrine or Navagraha shrines. In South India visiting Lord Ayyappa temple is very popular on Saturdays.

Shani or Saturn is the most dreaded ‘graha’ in Hindu astrology. Astrologers believe that all the other planets fail to give any good results if Shani happens to cause obstruction. Shani’s ‘sade-sati’ is considered as terribly ill-fated. There are many legends, myths, fears and folklore associated with Shani. He is the son of Surya (sun) and his wife Chhaya (shadow), hence also known as Chayyaputra. He is the elder brother of Yama, the Hindu god of death, who in some scriptures corresponds to the deliverance of justice. Shani gives us the results of one’s deeds through appropriate punishments and rewards; Yama grants the results of one’s deeds after death. According to a famous mythological story, when Shani opened his eyes as a baby for the first time, the sun went into an eclipse. This clearly denotes our belief in the impact of Shani on astrological charts. Stories about his evil influence are plentiful. In Vedic astrology, the planetary position at the time of birth determines the future of a person. Therefore, Hindus accord immense importance to the planets, and Saturn or Shani is one such planet which they fear the most for ill-luck. Anyone born under his influence is believed to at risk. In the legends, Shani is represented as riding a chariot, carrying a bow and arrow and pulled by a vulture or crow. Shani is found wearing a blue cloth, blue flowers and sapphire. He is depicted dark in colour, clothed in black; holding a sword, arrows and two daggers and mounted on a crow.

According to one school of Vedic astrology this is a troublesome time for the person who is under sade-sati’s influence. There may be a lot of challenges in his life, and he may face accidents, sudden failures, money, legal and health problems. Saturn is a teacher like Jupiter, but Saturn is a bit harsher than Jupiter. Saturn loves to show you reality of your life and present to you in ‘Now’, whereas Jupiter gives optimism about the future.

It is believed that those who have the blessing of Lord Hanuman are protected from the wrath of Shani. Therefore many people make it a point to worship Hanuman at home or in temples. Black is the preferred colour on Saturday. Devotees who are observing Shanivar Vrat usually visit Shani shrines. Black coloured items like sesame til, sesame oil, black clothes, and black gram whole are offered to Shani. It must be noted here that the color of the idol of Shani is always black in color.

Those devotees who fast on Saturday only take a single meal that too in the evening after prayers. Food prepared usually consists of sesame til or black gram or any other black coloured food item. Salt is avoided by many on the day.

Shani Dhyan Mantra

Nilanjana samabhasam raviputram yamagrajam

Chaya martanda sambhutam tam namami shaishcharam

Shani Gayatri Mantra

Aum Sanaischaraya Vidmahe Sooryaputraya Dheemahi,

Tanno Manda Prachodayat.

Doing good to others is one of the best way to please deities. It must be noted here that the deity worshipped on a particular day might vary from region to region and community to community. The result of all upvas or fast depends on the person. It is good, if all the members in the family can undertake a Vrata together. All rituals and observances are path towards understanding the Supreme Soul and this will automatically alleviate all sufferings.

“If you would not be forgotten as soon as you are dead, either write something worth reading or do something worth writing.” —Benjamin Franklin

Can you visualize yourself inside a coffin and all your friends, relatives, colleagues and others standing around it? What would you like them to talk about you? That you were a great guy and your death leaves an irreplaceable loss to the society or just good riddance! What will you be known for when you leave this earth?

The most influential people, the ones who leave behind incredible legacies, will live on in the hearts of the people they touch. Their principles, philosophies and achievements will become immortal, spreading from generation to generation. If you leave your work today, either on retirement or on resignation, how would your colleagues remember you? Have you ever thought about leaving a great memorable legacy in the company you work, in the Industry you serve or in the society or even in your own family? What are you doing to achieve the same?

Do you remember the following persons?

Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Theresa, Abraham Lincoln, Swami Vivekananda, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein,

How about these?

Adolf Hitler, Idi Amin, Pol Pot, Genghis Khan, Osama Bin Laden,

What makes you remember them?

In Hindu philosophy, there are seven “Chirajeevi”.

“Ashwathaama Balirvyaaso Hanumanshcha Vibhishanaha

Krupascha Parshuramascha, Saptaitey Chiranjivinaha”

Chiranjeevi does not mean that person in physically alive. He has left a legacy, good or bad for others to follow or discard.

– Vyasa, represents erudition and wisdom.

– Hanuman, stands for selflessness, courage, devotion, strength, and righteous conduct.

– Parasurama, represents technical knowledge, knowledgeable about all astras, sastras and divine weapons.

– Vibhishana, stands for righteousness.

– Kripa – impartiality towards all students (unlike Drona)

– Mahabali stands for valour and charity

– Ashwasthama is cursed for his cruelty and unrighteousness.

Do you want to be a Chiranjeevi or someone who is dead and forgotten?

Parikshit was a great king who ruled righteously and protected all. Yet, one day he did an action that was unpardonable which led to his death. Even though he was tired and fatigued, arrogance of being a king made him insult a Yogi who was on deep meditation, because the silent Yogi did not answer the questions asked by the king. For a simple reason a great king had to die.

Similar incident happened in Kerala recently. An arrogant police officer, who became very angry, as an Electrician had parked his car in front of the officer’s car and the Officer had to wait for some time to resume his journey. This led to serious altercation with the Electrician, which finally resulted in his death as the officer and his men showed their might and authority. Having realized that her husband died due to Police high handedness, she started a hunger strike, which finally led to the order for arresting the accused officer. Having absconded initially, the Officer returned home after a week, only to commit suicide to avoid ignominy and possible punishment.

Two valuable lives lost due to arrogance and momentary loss of judgement.

When children of the same parents behave differently and at times fight each other, we wonder what is happening. Only in Hindi movies, we have seen that separated on birth one becomes a Police officer and other a Villain and fight to death or reconcile at the end. However, the truth is different. Even though scientific studies prove that both nature and nurture (Genes and Environment) affect behaviour, nurture matters the most. Often, sibling rivalry starts even before the second child is born, and continues as the kids grow and compete for everything from toys to attention. As kids reach different stages of development, their evolving needs can significantly affect how they relate to one another. It can be frustrating and upsetting to watch your kids fight with one another. A household that is full of conflict is stressful for everyone. Yet often it is hard to know how to stop the fighting and usually futile.

Sibling rivalry is not new. It has started with the creation of the universe itself as per Hindu mythology. Brahma created many Prajapatis who in turn created the universe, the primary creator being Kasyapa Prajapati. His children includes Gods, Asuras, demons, Gandharvas, Yakshas, birds, snakes, reptiles, cows and many more. As you can see, most of them are enemies by birth and never can reconcile with each other. Gods fight with Asuras and Demons and Birds eat snakes.

Kashyapa, son of Sage Marichi, is considered to be the father of all the devas, asuras, nagas and all of humanity. Daksha Prajapati married thirteen of his daughters to Sage Kasyapa. The daughters of Daksha married to Kasyapa are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arista, Surasa, Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ira, Kadru and Muni.

From Aditi have sprung the twelve Adityas who are the lords of the universe. The 33 crores of Devas came into being from the twelve Adityas.

The Daityas or Asuras were born from Kasyapa’s second wife Diti. The chief Daityas are Hiranyakasipu and  Hiranyaksa.

Danu had forty sons, called Danavas.

Gandharvas was born to Arista.

Surasa gave birth to Nagas (serpents) and Kadru gave birth to Uragas(reptiles). Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kumara, and Kulika are known to be the sons of Kadru.

Two daughters named Rohini and Gandharvi were born to Surabhi. Cattles were born from Rohini and horses from Gandharvi.

Grass on earth originated from Ira and Muni gave birth to the Yaksas.

Krodhavasa gave birth to ten daughters. Of these Mrgi gave birth to beasts, Mrgamanda to trees and plants. Lions and monkeys are the children of Hari, Bhadramada got a daughter named Iravati. Airavata was the son of Iravati. From Matangi were born the elephants and from Sarduli the tigers. The Astadiggajas are the sons of Sveta. Pradha’s children are Apsaras.

Sons of Vinata are Garuda and Aruna, the birds.

Tamra had five daughters named Kraurici, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and Suki. Of these Kraurici delivered owls, Bhasi delivered Bhasas, Syeni, Kites and Vultures, Dhrtarastri, swans, geese and cuckoos.

With such a lineage, can we even have peace in this world?

 

“Maveli Naadu vaanidum kaalam, Manushyarellarum onnu pole

Aamodathode vasikkum kaalam, Aapathangarku-mottilla thaanum

Aadhikal vyaadhikal onnumilla, Baalamaranangal kelkkanilla

Dushtare kankondu kaanmanilla, Nallavarallathe illa paaril… illa paaril”

“When Mahabali was the ruler, all were happy and none had any problems or difficulties. People were very healthy and never heard of infant mortality. There were only good people in the world and one cannot see cruel persons anywhere. ” (rough translation)

Onam is a major annual festival for Malayalees in and outside Kerala and every Malayali would have sang this song at least once in their lifetime, as we celebrate Onam festival. There is only one story about Onam but there are many controversies starting from the myth to current politics.

According to the Hindu mythology, Mahabali is the great grandson of Asura king Hiranyakashipu, and the grandson of Vishnu devotee Prahlada. Mahabali came to power by defeating the gods (Devas) and taking over the three worlds. According to mythology, the defeated Devas approached Vishnu for help in their battle with Mahabali. Vishnu refused to join the gods in battle against Mahabali, because Mahabali was a good ruler and his own devotee. He, instead, decided to test Mahabali’s devotion at an opportune moment.

With the blessings of his Guru Shukracharya King Bali received many boons and divine military equipment. With the help of those and his army, Bali conquered the three worlds, including heaven displacing Lord Indra. Guru Brahaspati advised Indra to bid his time as Bali is undefeatable now and only almighty Hari can defeat him, when the time comes.

When her sons were defeated and disappeared, Adit, the mother of gods approached her husband for help.   She complained to Kasyapa that she and her children have been exiled, lost their power, splendour, glory and the house and is in a sea of calamities. Kasyapa advised her to worship Lord Vishnu who alone is capable of conferring cherished boons to overcome the miseries and suggested the methodologies for the special vrata to be performed. On completion of the vrata, Vishnu appeared and mentioned to her that currently none, including me can displace King Bali, as his time is very good and is protected by his good deeds. However, at the appropriate time, having satisfied with your devotion, I will take birth as your son and do what is necessary to restore the glory to you and your children. In due course of time, the Lord manifested himself as a dwarf Brahmana boy and was named Vamana.

On hearing that King Bali was conducting a “horse sacrifice”, Vamana proceeded to that place and seeing him arrive, Bali welcomed him and washed his feet as tradition demands. After paying obeisance, Bali enquired to the Brahmin boy as to what he can do for him. Vamana said, you are the righteous king and bestows boons to whoever asks. However, what I need is only three paces of land measured by my feet. King Bali offered him much more than three paces and requested Vamana to take three villages or as much as needed for his comfortable living in future. Vamana insisted that his requirements are only three paces and not more. Shukracharya warns King Bali that this dwarf is none other than Vishnu and is here on behalf of the gods and if you promise him the three paces, he will deprive you of your position, splendour and sovereignty and pass it on to Indra. However, King Bali remains steadfast in his promise. Having disobeyed his advice, Guru Shukracharya curses Bali that he will soon fall from splendour. That dwarf miraculously expanded to such an extent that he covered the earth and nether world by the first step, heaven and all the worlds above that with the second step and asked Bali as to where he should keep the third step as promised. Bali humbly offered his head to keep the third step.

Prahlada, the grandfather of Bali came, prostrated and asked the Lord “if a person with sincere and guileless mind offers water for washing your feet and worship, you protect him. Then how come Bali, a great devotee of yours is punished even after offering you the three worlds without hesitation?”

Lord Vishnu replied, “A devotee should not get infatuated with pride due to his position, power, wealth, birth or such other things as they are obstructive of attainment of final bliss. Bali is my devotee and has overcome the vagaries of maya and therefore is dear to me. I take away the fortune of those whom I show my grace, so that they are free of all bondages and ready to attain the final bliss. I also bless him to be the next Indra under my protection and until then he would be the king of Sutala with all the powers and glory. He is also free to visit his subjects once in a year.

Mahabali’s visit once a year is celebrated as ‘Onam” by Malayalees around the world.

There has been many controversies and questions about this myth.

  1. What is the significance or Onam?
  2. Bali was a righteous king and a great devotee of Lord Vishnu like his grandfather Prahlada. Then why was he punished?
  3. Is Onam celebrated in honour of Mahabali or Lord Vamana?
  4. As per another story, Kerala was created by Parasurama, who is the sixth avatar of Vishnu. Then how come Bali rule the place during the time of fifth avatar Vamana?

A typical Malayali who is secular and rational in his thoughts would believe that Onam is a harvest festival and celebrated by all, irrespective of caste, creed, religion or political ideology, with fun and gaiety. However, those with myopic thoughts, who try to put a wedge between people, create controversies by many different means

  • “Thiruvonam”, as Malayalees call this festival, also signifies the ‘star’ of the day and it is also the birth star of Lord Vamana; therefore, it is also celebrated as “Vamana Jayanthi”in some parts of India.
  • The controversy regarding calling Onam as Vamana Jayanthi was the creation of some vested interests to create wedge between people for political mileage. When you call this festival as ‘Vamana Jayanthi’ you end up giving importance to Vamana and not Mahabali, whereas Malayalees celebrate Onam as the return of their most favourite King once a year to meet them.
  • Some call this as an effort by Brahmanas to reemphasize their supremacy. Bali was an asura king and the term ‘asura’ generally is indicative of those who share the character of powerful beings obsessed with their craving for ill-gotten wealth, ego, anger, unprincipled nature, violence, lust, hate, arrogance, conceit, anger, harshness, hypocrisy, cruelty and such negativity. So how come someone worship a person belonging to such a group? However there are also good asuras and bad asuras. Agni, Varuna and Prahlada were all good asuras and they are either worshipped or respected. So why not honour an equally righteous king, Mahabali?
  • Some call it the fight between upper and lower caste Hindus and they consider Bali to be a lower caste chieftain who fought and won against the atrocities of high caste Brahmanas. There are many such venerated gods in Kerala, including the Muthappan, who is the presiding deity of famous temple at Parassinikadavu, in northern Kerala.
  • For anything to sustain for a long time, it has to follow natural process and procedures. Typically, the sustenance of gods are through the obeisance paid by human beings by way of homam. A homam is a form of quid pro quo where through the fire ritual, a sacrificer offers something to the gods and expects something in return. The Vedic ritual consisted of sacrificial offerings of something edible or drinkable, such as milk, clarified butter, yoghurt, rice, barley, an animal, or anything of value, offered to the gods through fire god with the assistance of priests. God in turn ensures wealth and prosperity of human beings through proper sun, moon, wind, rain and agricultural produces. However during the rule of Mahabali, such rituals were terminated and human beings received whatever they want through the power and benevolence of the King. Since Mahabali has conquered heaven with all its riches, he had enough to share with the human beings. Imagine a modern day state where the government managed by the Prime minister and various ministers administer the country through the money received by way of various taxes. Nobody likes to pay taxes, neither rich nor poor. A new ruler comes along, nationalises all industry and business and announces no taxes to be paid in future. He offers free food, medicines and various other welfare programs by taking away money and business from rich people. The common men are happy. But is this sustainable for long? What should be done to bring order back to the society? May be what Vishnu has done is the same; bringing back order to the society. However, Vishnu offers the position of Prime Ministership (Bali was offered to be the next Indra) to the expelled ruler in due course of time after he learns the systems and process for governing a large state. Therefore, it is very difficult to say that Bali was honoured or punished.
  • Time is an essential element of creation and destruction. As per Hindu (Vaishnavism) philosophy, only Vishnu is timeless. For everyone else, including Indra, gods and Mahabali, time is the great destroyer and takes away all that is precious and are subjected to appearance and disappearance. Everything is impermanent and subject to constant change. All states, the good and the evil, are caused by Time. Therefore the reign of Mahabali, however great it is, have to end at the appropriate time.
  • Onam is significant for many reasons, besides being the beginning of the harvesting season and the end of misery and diseases of the raining season, an occasion to celebrate the beginning of spring and sunshine. Today Malayalees across the globe celebrate Onam irrespective of their religion, caste, social status or age. Therefore, it is truly secular, apolitical and spreads equality among all people, much more than the political ideologies of the ‘so called secular’ parties. Therefore, we must continue celebrate Onam as it is done today and ignore calls of all vested interests to divide the society in many different ways.

 

Two things that you notice when you return to India from a foreign trip are the filth on our roads and the noise, particularly the constant and incessant honking of vehicles. Our honourable Prime Minister has already initiated a “clean India” program and it is for us, the citizens to start the “Calm India” program simultaneously.

Honking reflects our culture and behaviour. Like the caption of the book written by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, Indians are argumentative. And what we see on the roads are arguments either verbally or through honking. When you honk, you are telling the other driver to get the hell out of my way, and if honking continues, it means you are also abusing him. In western countries honking is rare and when you hear one, rest assured the driver of the other vehicle has done some serious violations!

Our roads are bad and the traffic is high, but what makes everything worse is our lack of patience. Instead of following lane driving, at signals or railway crossings most drivers block both the sides and keep honking when the flow starts. End result is that you lose time, peace of mind and at times costly scratches to your precious vehicle. Have you seen stray dogs barking at each other or at passers-by for no explainable reasons? If you have even been to a fish market or taken a morning walk at 5 AM in Bangalore you will know what I am saying. May be for a fish head or for fun, which is what I see on our roads. If you stand in a junction and watch the fun you will realize vehicles are honking for no reason, at times expecting the vehicle in front to move forward and give way even when there is no way or when a poor pedestrian is trying to cross the road after waiting for a very long time.

Therefore let us all pledge to make our roads noise free and calm. Let us pledge not to honk unnecessarily and maintain discipline and decorum on the roads.

There are many misgivings about wealth in our society. Though everybody wants to be rich, the rich are looked down as sinners and greedy. It is passion among politicians to criticize the businessman but approach them for money during election times. Here is an excerpt from Mahabharata.

Without wealth, a man cannot find the very means of sustaining his life. A fool and his money are soon parted. He that has wealth has friends and relatives. He that has wealth is regarded as a learned man. If a person who has no wealth desires to achieve a particular purpose, he meets with failure. Wealth brings about accessions of wealth, like elephants capturing (wild) elephants. Religious acts, pleasures, joy, courage, anger, learning, and sense of dignity, all these proceed from wealth. From wealth one acquires family honour. From wealth, one’s religious merit increases as he succeeds in performing religious acts. It is seen that a poor man, even when he stands near, is accused falsely. Poverty is a state of sinfulness. The man that is fallen grieves, as also he that is poor. There is no difference between a fallen man and a poor man.

Two heads (brains) are better than one; unless two hands meet there won’t be a clap (sound), these are some of the general sayings that we keep hearing in our day to day life. It is a fact that unless two entities join together an objective cannot be achieved. The concept emphasizes the significance of working together, collective decision making, joint venture, partnership, utilization of quality circle, team work etc. in solving problems and finding solutions be it domestic or non domestic. In the backdrop of the theory of duality, number Two (2) has taken birth.  In our day to day life we find several such living examples of duality like that of wife and husband, male & female, couple, twins, duo, day & night, yes & no, sun & moon, heaven & hell, left & right, Adam & Eve, positive & negative, good & evil, right & wrong, sorrow & happiness, yin & yang etc. Number two also point to difference, discrimination, differentiation or conflict etc. Dualities are common in human approaches to the world, probably because of our preference for two-valued logic—yet another duality, true/false. Two is theory and practice; wisdom and method.

  1. In Hinduism, number Two is portrayed as Dvi (२) which can also be spelled as Dvai or Dvy, a Sanskrit word which is again based on the principle of duality. It is also known as Dvaya (two ways or two types). For example Prakruthi (nature) Purusha (God), Divine couples like Lakshmi Naaarayana, Gouri Shankara, Saraswathi Brahma, Seeta Rama, Radha Krishna etc fall in the group of divine representation of Dvaya.
  2. Ayanas two. A. Uttarayana, from July-August to December-January (Dhanu). B. Daksinayana, from January-February (Makaram) to June-July (Mithunam). For the Devas Uttarayana is day and Daksinayana night. Religious minded Hindus believe that Uttarayana is an auspicious period for death .
  3. Arthadusanas 2. (Misuse of wealth) – (1) Spending money for bad purposes and not spending money for good purposes. (ii) Stealing money or wealth and not giving money to poor deserving people.
  4. Alankaras 2. (Figures of speech)  –  Arthalankara and Sabdalankara.
  5. Aushadhas 2. (Medicines). Curatives like medicated oils and ghees, honey etc. and purgatives like vasti (enema) , recanam ( purgation) and vamanam (vomiting) .
  6. Aids for health 2. Cleanliness and sexual continence.
  7. Gurus 2. (Preceptors)  – Actual preceptor or preceptor in effect and casual preceptor.
  8. Katudvayam. – Pippali (long pepper) and Marica ( Pepper)
  9. Kalahakaranam –  2. (Causes for quarrel) – Gold and woman (Kanaka and Kamini).
  10. Kayadvayam (Two bodies). Mind and body.
  11. Karanadvayam (Two causes). Upadanam (ultimate cause) and Nimittam (immediate cause).
  12. Kshradvayam (Two salts). Alkaline salt (Saltpetre), Sodium Carbonate.
  13. Capaladvayam (Fickle ones 2) – Women and fools.
  14. Jnanadvayam (Knowledges.2). Superficial knowledge and deep knowledge. (Mandajnana and Drdhajnana) .
  15. Dharmadvayam (Duties 1). Action and renunciation. (Pravrtti and Nivrtti).
  16. Nisadvayam – Turmeric and Amonum Xanthorrhizon
  17. Nisthadvayam – Sadhya (knowledge) and Sadhana (action) .
  18. Paksadvayam. Krishnapaksa (dark fortnight) and Suklapaksa moon-lit fortnight.
  19. Padyakavyadvayam (Poetry)  2 –  Lyric and Mahakavyam (epic) .
  20. Papadvayam (Sins 2) . Original sin and acquired. (Janmapapa and Karmapapa) .
  21. Moksakaranadvayam. Causes for salvation (2) – Yoga and death in war.
  22. Yogadvayam. Karma (action) and Jnana (knowledge)
  23. Ragadvayam (colour). Purnam (unmixed) and Janyam (mixed).
  24. Rogadvayam (Diseases 2) –  (a) Physical and mental ( Kayika and Manasika) . (b) Congenital and acquired. (Sahaja and Agantuka).
  25. Viryadvayam – Heat and cold.
  26. Srngaradvayam. Love or the erotic sentiment – Love in union and that in separation. (Sambhoga and Vipralambha) .
  27. Srutidharmadvayam (Musical cadence ). High pitch and low pitch (Ucca and nica) .
  28. Samadhanakaranadvayam (Two causes for peace) – Patience or forbearance and generosity. (Ksama and danasila) .
  29. There are two blades on a pair of scissors and two sides to a piece of paper. People have two hands and so do some clocks. There are two sexes and two sides to an argument. Two-dimensional means that something has just length and width, but no depth.
  30. Bi- means two. For example, a bicycle has two wheels and a bigamist has two husbands or two wives.
  31. In the Hindu concept of marriage Dvi also stands for pair or couple known as Dampathi (wife and husband) in Sanskrit and their relationship is known as Daampatya. In fact the very concept of marriage is an association of two different entities living together for life time.
  32. In the concept of Rudraaksha, there is a two faced Rudraaksha known as Dvimukhi which signifies the symbolism of Ardhnaareeshwara a joint image of Lord Shiva and Goddess Paarvathi Devi.  This Rudraaksha is believed to bestow upon the wearer with harmony in life.
  33. Dvi also suggests Dweepa an island and Lord and Sage Veda Vyaasa is called as Krishna Dwaipayana the one who is dark in colour and born on an island.
  34. Number two signifies the famous Thaaraka manthra Rama which is a confluence of two letters Ra + Ma. It is said that these two letters are Jeevaakshara (life giving letters) carved out of the most famous Naaraayana Astaakshari and Shiva Panchaakshari. Ra carved out of Naaraayana Astaakshari; Om! Namo! Naaraayanaaya! and Ma from Shiva Panchaakshari; Om! Namah Sivaaya!  These two life giving letters (Dvi-akshara manthra) are the soul of these two powerful Mantras and when they are put together the powerful Thaaraka Manthra Rama emerges out. Without these two letters, these manthras become ineffective.
  35. In the Hinduism the one who has undergone and experienced Upanayana is called as Dvija meaning twice born.  Dvi means second and Ja means birth and Dvija means twice born or taking second birth. By birth every one is a Suudra. Only by performing certain rites (sanskaara) viz. Upanayana and getting inducted into Gaayathri Manthra upadesa, one gets spiritually purified; then he is known as Dvija.  Literally Upanayana sanskaara is a second birth to a human being.
  36. Famous Hindu philosophy propagated and founded by the great saint & philosopher Sri Madhvaachaarya known as Dvaitha Siddhaantha or Tattva Vaada is again based on the principle of duality. The doctrine perceived the fact that Jeevaatma or the individual soul is totally different from Paramaatma the supreme soul (Lord Sri ManNaaraayana) and Lord Sri Hari (Sri Maha Vishnu) is the supreme Lord.  It also asserts the fact that the universe (world) is real. Even the great epic SriMad Bhaagavatham says that if the Universe has come from that Supreme Reality, it cannot be unreal.
  37. Yin and Yang – In Daoist philosophy Yin and Yang are the two forces that keep the universe in perfect balance.
  38. The planet Mars has two moons: Phobos and Deimos .
  39. Janus was the two-headed god of the Roman mythology. The two heads faced opposite directions. Janus was the god of the doorways and entrances. He could see both the past and the future.
  1. Trilokas – Bhur – Bhuvah – Svah (Earth, Heaven and Netherworlds) are the three worlds which forms the universe.
  2. Trimukhi Rudraaksha: In the concept of Rudraaksha, there is a three faced Rudraaksha known as Trimukhi believed to represent Agni (Fire God) and planet Mars (Kuja). It is believed to bestow upon the wearer the ability to distance him self from committing sins and wrong doings.
  3. Trikaala-sandhya- Sandhya means the meeting period or transit time of day and night (dawn to dusk). Sandhyopaasana or Sandhyavandana is prescribed to be performed three times that is known as Trikaala Sandhya – Pratah Sandhya (morning before Sunrise), Madhyaanah Sandhya (before Sun reaches the zenith) and Saayam Sandhya before Sunset.
  4. Astro-Numerical #3 – According to Astro numerology Jupiter is the ruling planet of number three. People born with number three as their birth number are said to be creative and imaginative, success oriented, having positive outlook, sympathetic, peace loving and warm by nature, at the same time highly ambitious, disciplined and do not like subordination. Number three deals with intuition, invokes expression, versatility and pure joy of creativity.
  5. Trimathaachaarya – Sri Sankarachaarya founder of Advaita philosophy, Sri Raamaanujaachaarya founder of Visishtaadvaita philosophy and Sri Madhvaachaarya founder of Dvaita philosophy are together known as Trimathaachaarya, founders and exponents of three great Hindu philosophies.
  6. Trikarana Suddhi – Purity in thought (mind), speech (talk) and deed (action) is known as Trikarana Suddhi. Any action performed with Trikarana suddhi yields positive results. It is otherwise also known as Mano (Manasa) – Vaak (Vaacha) – Kaaya (limbs) Karmana. 
  7. Triveni Sangam – The sacred Sangam is the confluence of three of the holiest rivers in Hindu mythology Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati which is also called the river of enlightenment.  It is said and believed that it is one of the four sacred spots where a few drops of the nectar ‘Amrutha” spilled while it was carried by Lord Maha Vishnu during the episode of Ksheera Saagara Madhanam. The other three are Haridwar, Nasik, and Ujjain.
  8. Tripathagaamini or Tripathaga – Goddess Ganga (Ganga River) is known as Tripathagaamini the one who flows in all the three worlds, Heaven (Swarga), Bhoo Loka (Earth) and Nether Worlds – In Heaven it is known as Mandaakini, on the Earth it is known as Ganga (Ganges) and in the Netherworlds it is known as Bhogavathi.
  9. Tridosha – Medical science of Aayurveda is based mainly on the concept of three defects (tridosha) of the body viz. Vaata, Pitta and Kapha.

10. Triphala – It is an Aayurvedic herbal formula a mixture of three fruits viz. Amalaki (Indian Gooseberry), Bibhitaki and Haritaki that is being used since ancient times as a very popular, potent and powerful aayurvedic remedy for three doshas related to Vaata, Pitta and Kapha. The medicine is available in the form of powder, tablets as well as syrup. The medicine has a balancing effect on the three constitutional elements that govern human life that boosts the immune system. It is used in a wide range of applications, specifically in digestive disorders, constipation etc.

11. Trivarna Pathaaka – National flag of India is a tricolored flag having three colours viz. Saafron signifying sacrifice, Green that signifies prosperity and White that signifies peace.

12. In Zoroastrianism there are three ethical principles. Humata, Hukhta,  Huveshta meaning to think good,  to speak good, to act good.

13. Under Muslim law a man can divorce his wife by repeating the phrase Talaq, meaning “I divorce thee” three times.

14. According to Benjamin Disraeli (British Prime Minister, 1804-1881) there are three degrees of lies:  Lies – Damned Lies – Statistics.

15. Petals of the Iris Flower – The iris flower were a symbol of power in ancient Egypt. It was often placed on sceptres of rulers and kings. The three large petals of the iris flower symbolize: Faith – Wisdom – Courage. The iris flower is named after the Greek messenger goddess, Iris.

16. The octopus has three hearts.

17. Camels have three eyelids.

18. Cats have a third eyelid. It is called the haw.

19. Squabbling Day – The third day of the Chinese New Year is often called the “Squabbling Day”. People will avoid visiting family and friends on this day as it may result in quarrels. A visit to the temple is a better choice.

20. The Three Wise Monkeys – Hear No Evil, Speak No Evil, See No Evil.

21. Sun Goddess Amaterasu – Shinto – The three symbols of the sun goddess. The Mirror – symbol of truth and wisdom. The Jewel symbol of compassion. The Sword – symbol of strength and courage.

22. In Greek myth three bothers Zeus, Poseidon and Hades were each rulers of their worlds. 1. Zeus – ruler of the sky, 2. Poseidon – ruler of the sea, 3. Hades – ruler of the underworld. Their equivalents in Roman myth were Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto.

23. In Roman mythology the Moeraes were called the Fates. 1. The first was known as “The spinner”. She spun the life web of the humans. Her name was Clotho in Greek Mythology and Nona in Roman Mythology. 2. the second was known as” The Apportioner”.  She decided how long each human was to live. Her name was Lachesis in Greek Mythology and Decima in Roman Mythology. 3. The third was known as “The Inevitable”. She cut the thread of life when it was time for someone to die. Her name was Atropos in Greek Mythology and Morta in Roman Mythology.

24. Trirathika (Three charioteers) – Asvatthama, Krpa and Satyaki, the three eminent bow-men who took part in the Mahabharata battle were called Trirathikas meaning three great charioteers.

25. Trikarma – Hindu scriptures divide karma into three kinds – Sanchita, Prarabda and agamika karma. Sanchita is the accumulated karma. It would be impossible to experience and endure all karmas in one lifetime. From this stock of sanchita karma, a handful is taken out to serve one lifetime and this handful of actions, which have begun to bear fruit and which will be exhausted only on their fruit being enjoyed and not otherwise, is known as prarabdha karma. Prarabdha Fruit-bearing karma is the portion of accumulated karma that has “ripened” and appears as a particular problem in the present life. Agamika is everything that we produce in the current life. Only in human life we can change our future destiny.

26. Kharatraya – Yavakshara, sajjikshara, sohaga. — Diuretic, expectorant  …

27. Triphala – Dry fruit rind powders of these three, in equal quantities is called as Triphala. Haritaki – Terminalia chebula, Vibhitaki – Terminalia bellirica, Amalaki – Emblica officinalis.

28. Trikatu Churna – Pippali – long pepper fruit – Piper longum, Maricha – black pepper – Piper nigrum and Shunti – Ginger – Zingiber officinalis are together in equal quantities is called as Trikatu or Trayushana.

29. Trimada – Musta – Nut grass – Cyperus rotundus, Chitraka – Leadwort – Plumbago zeylanica, Vidanga – False black pepper – Embelia ribes are together called as Trimada. This combination improves digestion, useful in worm infestation.

30. Trimadhura or Madhura Traya – Ghrita – ghee, Guda – jiggery and Makshika – honey are together called Trimadhura or Madhura traya.

31. Trijata – (Trisugandhi) – Twak – Cinnamon – Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ela – Cardamom – Elettaria cardamomum and Patra – Cinnamomum tamala are together called as Trijata / Trisugandhi

32. Lavana traya – Three salts. Saindhava, Sauvarchala (ruchaka) and Vida Lavana

33. Ksharatraya – Yava, swarjika and tankana.

34. Triparikrantha – one who has overcome three internal foes, kama, krodha and lobha.

35. Trikhara – three acidic substances, natron, saltpetre and borax.

36. Trisamridha – a cow that is triply fortunate – not obstinate, milk giving and fertile.

37. Trivikrama – Vishnu who conquered all the three worlds in three steps.

38. Buddhism – The Three Cardinal Faults. At the very centre of the Samsara, The Wheel of life, there are three symbols of the cardinal faults of humans. The pig symbolizing greed, the snake symbolizing hatred and the cock symbolizing delusion.

 

  1. Naditraya – The three nadis of the body are Ida, Pingala and Susumna.
  2. Purusatraya – The three classes of men are Uttama (best), Madhyama (mediocre) and Adhama (lowest).
  3. Pramanatraya- The three kinds of means of valid knowledge are Pratyaksa (what can be seen), Anumana (what can be logically inferred) and Agama (Verbal testimony)
  4. Brahmalaksanatraya- Suddha, Siva and Santa are the three Brahmalaksanas.
  5. Munitraya- The celebrated trio of sages are Panini, Patanjali and Katyayana.
  6. Yogatraya – The three kinds of yogas are: Jnanayoga, Bhaktiyoga and Karmayoga.
  7. Rititraya- The three ritis are Vaidarbhi, Pancali and Gaudi.
  8. Rupakatraya – Natya, Nrtya and Nrtta are the three rupakas.

10. Vaisyavrttitraya- The three duties of a Vaisya are Krishi (agriculture), Pasupalana (Breeding of cattle) and Vanijya ( trade) .

11. Saranatraya – Buddha, Dharma and Sangha are the three Saranas.

12. Siddhitraya- The following groups of three are considered to be Siddhitrayas. (a) Karmasiddhi, Yogasiddhi and Jnanasiddhi. (b) Aisvaryasiddhi, Jnanasiddhi and Vairagyasiddhi. (c) Sraddha, Vitta and Bhagya. (d) Mani, Mantra and Ausadha. (Siddhi means attainment, accomplishment).

13. Svaratraya -The different kinds of vowel are three in number namely Hrasva (short), Dirgha (long) and Pluta (prolated). Udatta, Anudatta and Svarita are also three different kinds of accent, i.e. the acute, grave and circumflexed).

14. Trimurti – Many world religions contain triple deities or concepts of trinity, including: the Christian Holy Trinity, the Hindu Trimurti(The Trimurti: Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer), The Three Jewels of Buddhism, the Three Pure Ones of Taoism, the Triple Goddess of Wicca.

15. In Vietnam, there is a superstition that considers it bad luck to take a photo with three people in it; it is professed that the person in the middle will die soon.

16. There is another superstition that it is unlucky to take a third light, that is, to be the third person to light a cigarette from the same match or lighter. This superstition is sometimes asserted to have originated among soldiers in the trenches of the First World War when a sniper might see the first light, take aim on the second and fire on the third.

17. A hat-trick in sports is associated with succeeding at anything three times in three consecutive attempts, as well as when any player in ice hockey or soccer scores three goals in one game (whether or not in succession). In cricket, if a bowler takes 3 wickets in a row it is called a hat trick.

18. A threepeat is a term for a team that wins three consecutive championships.

19. A triathlon consists of three events: swimming, bicycling, and running.

20. Three Phase – In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period.

21. One should not indulge in these three activities before noon – drinking alcohol, sex and gambling.

22. Three goddesses – Saraswati, Lakhsmi, Parvathi

23. Three goddesses of knowledge – Gayathri, Savithri, Saraswati (goddess of mind, goddess of deed and goddess of word)

24. Triple qualities of mind – Sattva, Rajas, Tamas.

25. Three states of consciousness – awake, sleep and dream.

26. God’s attributes are: omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence.

27. Thought, word, and deed, complete the sum of human capability. (Iccha Shakti, jnana Shakti and kriya Shakti)

28. In Japanese culture, the Three Treasures are, Mirror, Sword and Jewel–that being Truth, Courage and Compassion.

29. Nobel peace medal – The reverse side of the Nobel peace medal shows three naked men embracing one another – a symbol of the international fraternization that Nobel wished to contribute to through the Peace Prize. The inscription is in Latin: Pro pace et fraternitate gentium (For peace and fraternity among peoples).

30. Primary Colours – Only three primary colours are needed to mix most other colours; red, yellow and blue.

31. Lies -According to Benjamin Disraeli (British Prime Minister, 1804-1881) there are three degrees of lies:  Lies – Damned Lies – Statistics

32. Troika – The word “troika” is a Russian word for threesome, triplet or trio. A Troika is three-horse harnessed sledge. Troika is also the name of a traditional Russian dance. The dancers dance in groups of three. A Troika also means a committee consisting of three members. During the rule of Stalin, the Troika was used to speed up the prosecutions of people accused of political crimes. In that meaning a Troika consisted of three judges and replaced the normal legal system.

33. Three Grains – An old superstition from Britain states that it is lucky to find three whole grains in a loaf of bread. Another bread superstition says it if you take three loaves of bread out of the oven at one time, a death of someone you know will occur within a year.

34. Tri- means three. So triangles have three sides, tripods have three legs and the dinosaur triceratops had three horns. The French and the Indian flags are called tricolour flags because it has three colours. Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics based on measuring triangles.

35. Three-dimensional means that something has length, width and depth.

36. In Hindu philosophy number three represents AUM (OM) in its diagrammatic aspect which is considered to be primordial.

37. Number three is considered as a highly sacred number that represents the Trinal Lords Brahma, Vishnu, Maheshwara and their energies Saraswathi, Lakshmi and Paarvathi. Known as Trimoorthi (Trinity) they are highly revered in Hindu philosophy.

38. Sacred Yagnopaveetham is the triple stranded sacrificial thread joined by a knot called Brahmagranthi that is worn by those initiated into the Gaayathri recital.

39. Triguna – There are three states of mind or three natures or three temperaments that rule the behaviours of humans viz. Saatvika (humble and peace loving), Raajasa (aggressive) and Taamasa (inertia ridden).

40. Tridalam-Trigunaakaram –Sacred Bilva pathra used especially in the worship of Lord Shiva is a confluence of three leaves trifoliate, which is a symbolic representation of Lord Shiva’s weapon Trident (Trishoola). It represents the Trinal Lords Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara. It also represents the three qualities Sattva, Rajo and Tamo gunas and a symbolic representation of three syllables of Omkaara. Bilva dala also represents the three eyes of Lord Shiva who is known as Trinethra.