Gita 3.6

karmendriyani samyamya

ya aste manasa smaran

indriyarthan vimudhatma

mithyacarah sa ucyate


One who restrains the senses and organs of action, but whose mind dwells on sense objects, certainly deludes himself and is called a pretender.


One who is able to restrain their body from sense objects still may find their mind attached to sense objects. This is due to impurities caused by passion and desires from past lifetimes. Those who forcefully restrain their senses under the pretext of meditation but is inwardly reflecting on the objects of the senses is a cheat and a charlatan. Being impure the mind of such an impostor lacks the tranquillity and lucidity to practice such meditation.

Here the term ‘Karmendriyani’ does not stand only for the five organs of action (speech, hand, foot, anus and generative organ) but also stands for the five sense organs (ear, skin, eye, taste and nose) because actions cannot be performed by the organs of action alone without sense-organs. A man of foolish understanding (who cannot distinguish the real, from the unreal) restrains the senses forcibly, from running after sense-objects but thinks of the objects of enjoyment, with his mind and assumes this state, as action less. Such a person is called a hypocrite. The reason is that outwardly he has restrained the organs and senses, but because of egoism, attachment and desire, he performs action by enjoying pleasure, while thinking of the objects of enjoyment.

Gita 3.7

yas tv indriyani manasa

niyamyarabhate ‘rjuna

karmendriyaih karma-yogam

asaktah sa visisyate


But he who controls his senses through the mind, O Arjuna, and engages himself in the path of action, with the organs of action and sense, without being attached, is superior.


So the one performing actions without attachment is the best. Even the married householder who gradually through his actions controls his mind and senses is far superior to such a false renunciate. By diverting the senses from sense objects by control of the mind one becomes eligible for contemplation of the self.  When unattached to the desire for anything, one gets qualified for meditation on the atma or soul. So it is clear that the discipline of karma yoga the practice of selfless actions is essential for spiritual development.

Here the term ‘Manasa, stands for all the inner senses-(mind, intellect, faculty of reflection and ego) and the term ‘Indriyani’ denotes, all the ten organs of action and sense-organs. ‘Controlling the senses by the mind’ means that by applying discrimination a seeker should realize that the self has no affinity for the senses and the mind. When the senses are controlled by the mind, these can be engaged in or deviated from, any activity as the seeker wishes.

It is attachment, and not actions or their fruit that is the root of all evils. Attachment is the main stumbling block to perfection.

We should remember that the Gita is meant for the man of the world and not for the recluse. Arjuna wanted to abandon karma which is impossible because he was not mentally ready for it and hence Krishna tells him how to transform the same karma into ‘nishkamakarma’(selfless action). Control of the senses must come from within through the mind.

Gita 3.8

niyatam kuru karma tvam

karma jyayo hy akarmanah

sarira-yatrapi ca te

na prasiddhyed akarmanah


Perform your prescribed duty, for action is better than inaction. A man cannot even maintain his physical body without work.


One should perform the duties prescribed in the Vedic scriptures appropriate for ones stage in life. The daily duties like praying, meditating and worshipping are being referred to by Lord Krishna. Action is superior to inaction for by abstention from action none of these activities can be accomplished. What to say of those, if one fails to take actions even the maintenance of their physical body will not be possible.

One should perform the actions that are appropriate to one’s ‘varna’ or status and ashram or stage in life. In Vedic culture there are four varnas: brahmin the priestly class, kshatriya the royalty and warrior class, vaishya the farmers and business classes and sudra the workers and servants of the previous three classes. In Vedic culture there are also four ashrams: bramacharya which is celibate student life, grihasta which is married family life, vanaprastha which is semi-retired householder life and sannyasa which is complete renunciation of worldly life for meditation on God. Due to changing times and the unseemly mixture of different varnas people no longer adhere exclusively to the natural duties of their ashram as prescribed by the Vedas. This was even happening over 5000 years ago at the end Dvapara yuga. In the Mahabharata we see King Yudhishthira noting that it was becoming exceedingly difficult to determine the varna of people due to the mixture of different classes. Therefore it is only by conduct and attributes that one can judge what class one belongs to and not simply by what varna one was born into and this conduct is determined by actions.

A man is permitted to perform two types of actions-those as laid down in the scriptures such as, fasts and worship etc., and the allotted duty according to one’s caste, order of life, nature and circumstance, such as eating food, doing business, construction of a house and guiding a person who has lost his way and so on. Even if a man cannot perform all actions as laid down in the scriptures, thoroughly, he can very easily abandon the forbidden actions.  Non-performance of prescribed actions is not very harmful, but abandonment of forbidden actions, such as falsehood, theft and violence etc., is very beneficial. When he abandons forbidden actions, actions sanctioned by the scriptures, are automatically performed by him.

Gita 3.9

yajnarthat karmano ‘nyatra

loko ‘yam karma-bandhanah

tad-artham karma kaunteya

mukta-sangah samacara


The mankind is bound by actions other than those done for the sake of sacrifice. Therefore, O son of Kunti (Arjuna), perform action for that (yajna) sake, and without attachment.


Generally, a person does an act promptly and efficiently, only if it serves his selfish motive, but such an action binds him. In order to be free from the bondage, he should perform actions prescribed by the scriptures, disinterestedly. Actions should be performed as a sacrifice to the Supreme Lord and no sacrifice should ever be performed with an intention for reward. Activities performed as an offering to the Supreme Lord known as yajna or sacrifice should be performed which are not bound to the material nature.

According to the Gita, every duty is ‘Yajna’ (sacrifice). The term ‘Yajna’ includes sacrifice, charity, penance, oblation, pilgrimage, fast, study of the Vedas and all physical, mundane and spiritual actions. Professions such as business, service and teaching etc., sanctioned by the scriptures, are also included in ‘Yajna’. Actions which are performed to comfort others and for the welfare of others are also included in the term ‘Yajna’. Attachment perishes very quickly by performing actions for the sake of sacrifice and all actions of a Karma yogi are dissolved i.e., they instead of leading the person to bondage, reduce the stock of his past actions also to nothing.

Only when people come forward to act in a spirit of cooperation and self-dedication, can the community get itself free from its shackles of poverty and sorrow. And such activities should be undertaken in a spirit of divine loyalty only then the worker gets no attachment.

Gita 3.10

saha-yajnah prajah srstva

purovaca prajapatih

anena prasavisyadhvam

esa vo ‘stv ista-kama-dhuk


At the beginning, when the creator ‘(Prajapati) created living beings with sacrifice and said, “By this shall you propagate; let this fulfil all your requirements for the sacrifice (Yajna).”


At the beginning of creation Brahma, the creator, created man by providing him with power for performing actions and also bestowed upon him discrimination to choose the right use of desirable and undesirable circumstances that leads to salvation. A Karma yogi (the follower of the Discipline of Action), is ever ready to render service or do good to others. Therefore, according to the ordinance of Brahma, the creator, such a Karma yogi does not lack the required capacity and material for rendering service to others, and for the maintenance of his body. All this required material is easily available to him. According to the ordinance of Brahma everybody has been offered this material, in order to enable him to perform his duty.

God has created the entire world with a spirit of sacrifice and service. Look around and see yourself! The sun, moon, sea, river, trees…. All serve others selflessly without expecting anything in return. Only human beings are selfish. We can only progress when we start doing selfless service to others without expecting anything in return.



Chapter three establishes the fact by various points of view that the performance of prescribed duties is obligatory for everyone. Here Lord Krishna categorically and comprehensively explains how it is the duty of each and every member of society to carry out their functions and responsibilities in their respective stage of life according to the rules and regulations of the society in which one lives. Further the Lord explains why such duties must be performed, what benefit is gained by performing them, what harm is caused by not performing them. Plus what actions lead to bondage and what actions lead to salvation. All these points relating to duty have been described in great detail. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Eternal Duties of Human Beings.

Gita 3.1

arjuna uvaca

jyayasi cet karmanas te

mata buddhir janardana

tat kim karmani ghore mam

niyojayasi kesava


Arjuna said – If you think that knowledge is superior to action, O Janardhana (Krishna), why then do You make me do a dreadful deed, O Kesava (Krishna)?


Although jnana yoga and karma-yoga have been explained in detail, the relationship between the two has not been established as to which is superior and which is subordinate. Here in this verse Arjuna is thinking that he was blamed earlier in chapter two, verse 11 for lamenting for those who should not be grieved for. He was subsequently tutored in jnana yoga, the path of knowledge to alleviate this error. Now Lord Krishna is presenting a way to alleviate this error from the point of view of karma yoga, the path of actions without attachment. In chapter two, verse thirty-nine he is told he has the right to perform actions but not to desire the fruit of action. In chapter two, verse forty-seven and forty-eight he is instructed not to be attached to inaction and perform duties with equanimity, respectively. Then in chapter two, verse fifty-three he is told how the mind becomes in this state. Then from verse fifty-five until the end of the chapter two Lord Krishna gives the proofs to show the superiority of the cultivation of spiritual knowledge which leads to the ultimate truth in the last verse of this chapter where once one having attained even at a second before death attains liberation from the material existence. But in spite of these instructions Arjuna was still being instructed to arise and fight. These seemingly contradictory instructions caused some confusion in Arjuna mind that he was anxious to have the omniscient and omnipotent supreme Lord Krishna dispel.

Gita 3.2

vyamisreneva vakyena

buddhim mohayasiva me

tad ekam vada niscitya

yena sreyo ‘ham apnuyam


You seem to confuse me with contradicting statements. Tell me for certain which will fetch me the highest good.


Due to the praising of both jnana yoga and karma yoga in a seemingly equal manner some conflict arises in Arjuna’s mind and he became confused. Although Arjuna was bewildered he could still understand that Lord Krishna valued the cultivation of spiritual knowledge as being superior to activities without attachment and he could also understand that if Lord Krishna was ordering him to fight this must be also for his betterment as well, The Lord did not specify which path Arjuna was qualified for as yet and thus Arjuna was in a dilemma and needed a clear, definitive instruction that would end his confusion. Arjuna is humbly requesting this with the underlying request that the most merciful and compassionate Supreme Lord should not bewilder the mind of one who is His surrendered devotee. Arjuna requests Lord Krishna to tell him decisively, one principle either of action or of knowledge, by which he may attain the highest good or bliss.

Every day in our life, we are offered multiple choices to solve an issue or do something new. Where we reach in our life is based on the choices we make and to make the right choice clarity of thoughts arising out of knowledge and wisdom is a must. Here the Lord is guiding us towards that eternal wisdom.

Gita 3.3

sri-bhagavan uvaca

loke ‘smin dvi-vidha nistha

pura prokta mayanagha

jnana-yogena sankhyanam

karma-yogena yoginam


The Blessed Lord said: O sinless Arjuna, I have already explained that there are two classes of men who realize the Self. Some are inclined to understand Him by empirical, philosophical speculation, and others are inclined to know Him by devotional work.



Lord Krishna’s reply begins with O sinless one inferring that Arjuna is fit to be instructed. Lord Krishna states that in this world these are the two paths aspirants can take which lead to moksha or liberation. But they both depend upon qualification as jnana yoga is suitable for one type of human being and karma yoga is suitable for another type. What has been presented in the previous chapter was from the point of view of jnana yoga.

Gita 3.4

na karmanam anarambhan

naiskarmyam puruso ‘snute

na ca sannyasanad eva

siddhim samadhigacchati


Not by merely abstaining from work can one achieve freedom from reaction, nor by renunciation alone can one attain perfection.


It has been established that activities prescribed in the Vedic scriptures performed without anticipation of rewards are conducive for spiritual development. Without this inner consciousness one is not qualified for jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge. Many may wish for moksha or liberation and attempt to renounce the world prematurely but they do not reach perfection only by such renunciation. So it should be understood that without purity of mind and adequate spiritual knowledge a person even though appearing to be a renunciate actually has not properly qualified themselves for jnana yoga in spite of appearances.

The Gita teaches a man, how to attain spiritual perfection by performing one’s duty. It inspires him to perform actions, rather than to renounce them. So the Lord lays emphasis, on performing actions, in both the Disciplines of Action and Knowledge. It is natural that when a seeker aims at salvation, he gets tired of the worldly affairs and wants to renounce those affairs. Lord guides him to renounce his attachment to them instead of renouncing the performance of actions.

Gita 3.5

na hi kascit ksanam api

jatu tisthaty akarma-krt

karyate hy avasah karma

sarvah prakrti-jair gunaih


For, no one under any circumstances can remain even for a moment, without undertaking action; everyone is compelled to act, by the modes born of nature.


The renunciation of actions factually means not being attached to them. It does not mean actually giving them up, as that is impossible. If one should steadfastly determine to perform absolutely nothing, still one would be compelled into action by the qualities of the three gunas being sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance, all from prakriti, material nature. The effects of these have sprung into existence from one’s past life activities.

Generally, people regard their professions, such as business, service, teaching or nursing children etc., as actions, but they do not consider eating, drinking, sleeping, waking and thinking etc., as actions. So, when they renounce their profession, they think that they are not performing actions. But it is a serious error on their part. All the activities performed by the physical body, for the purpose of earning a living, actions performed by the subtle body like sleeping and thinking and in trance, performed by the causal body, are all regarded as actions. So long as, a man has ego and sense of ‘mineness’ with the body, the activities performed by body are actions as the body is part of nature and nature is never inactive. So, a person having egoism and attachment to the body cannot remain without performing action, in either of the states, either of activity or inactivity.

What we perceive as life existed even before we took this particular form of human body. When a baby is born, for instance, we do not know what it was before its birth and how many births it has gone through and similarly when a man dies we do not know where he goes and how many more births he had to undergo. So what is visible to us of the whole universe and all beings in the universe is only a small portion compared to the whole existence as such. So Krishna says why should there be any grief over the loss of lives or entities in this world.

Not only will happiness and fame elude Arjuna if he disregards his duty as a Kshatriya but the whole world will chastise him and speak of his act of disgrace in public as well as in private. They will say Arjuna was a coward for when the battle was about to begin he gave only excuses and retreated hastily from the battlefield. Lord Krishna is telling him that forever history will brand him for cowardice. If Arjuna was to reply that what the public think is of no consequence to him, Sri Krishna neutralises that by stating that for a person of honour possessing the qualities of heroism, determination, strength, courage etc. which are all contrary to cowardice to have to accept infamy is worse than death. An action by itself is neither good nor bad; the motive behind the action makes it so. Once we choose the right motive and inspire ourselves into action the achievement would be spectacular and rewarding. We all must act diligently, tirelessly, constantly and joyously. This results in increased efficiency and better results.

“If you are killed in the war you will attain heaven and if you gain victory, you will gain the kingdom. Thus righteous warfare would result in good, both here and hereafter. So you should be prepared to wage war, otherwise you risk losing both.” says the Lord. Krishna’s call to war can be understood to be a general call to each and every one of us to shed our inhibitions, negative attitude and lethargy and go forward to work hard for any righteous cause including our duty as a good son/daughter, parent, citizen or employee. By discharging one’s duty, one makes advancement in this world and other world. It means that by discharging one’s duty and by abstaining from what ought not to be done; one attains perfection here as well as hereafter.

Running away from problem is cowardice and the result always will be defeat, shame and sorrow. Facing the difficult situation needs courage and with courage you have a greater chance to succeed. Everyone should discharge his duty earnestly and efficiently, whether he has a desire or not for its fruit. By refusing to be affected by favourable and unfavourable circumstances, the mind becomes steady. So treating the two equally, one should discharge one’s duty. Moreover, one should not perform an action for the sake of pleasure, and refrain from another, for fear of its pain. But your aim is not to think of victory and defeat, gain and loss, and pleasure and pain, but your goal is to discharge your duty by treating the agreeable and the disagreeable, alike.

There is a huge difference between the mentality of those who are involved in actions with their intelligence seeking fruits of reward and the mentality of those spiritually evolved engaged in selfless actions not seeking rewards and totally devoted to the Lord Krishna. In the case of those enacting actions with desires of rewards, their thoughts are endless due to their desires being endless. We forget that enjoyment of pleasure is not the goal of human life, but its supreme object is the attainment of perfection and God realization, and all the circumstances, whether favourable or unfavourable, they are placed in, are means to attain perfection. The fact is that worldly pleasures and objects are not real obstacles to God-realization, but attachment to these, is the main hindrance. So long as, this attachment continues, not to talk of God-realization the people cannot even make up their minds to attain God, because their minds are drawn away, by worldly pleasure and prosperity etc. There are endless universes and there are endless pleasures in them. But if they are renounced and one becomes detached from them, they come to an end. Similarly there are endless desires. But if they are renounced, they come to an end and the man becomes desire less.

You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself to be the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty. The Lord advised that Arjuna not be inactive, but that he performs his prescribed duty without being attached to the result. One who is attached to the result of his work is also the cause of the action. In this verse there are four points which need attention-(i) your right is to perform your duty (action) only. (ii) Never lay claim to its fruit. (iii) Do not be the cause of the fruit of action. (iv) Let your attachment be not to inaction.

Renunciation of attachment will result in evenness of mind. A man should be even-minded, in favourable and unfavourable circumstances, in honour and dishonour, and in praise and reproach. To give up attachment one should be free from desire and aversion. Then success and failure do not affect him. Whatever comes is accepted with equanimity. Then he concentrates only on the work at hand. In the state of equanimity, a man while living in the world detaches himself from the world, and remains untouched by virtues and sins, as a lotus leaf by water. When one does all actions as karma yoga, without attachment to the result, it means that his mind is free from desires and his actions are not desire motivated. Thus he attains the evenness of mind. Then he does not accumulate fresh karma by his actions. His past karma which has not yet started giving result is demolished by his shedding off his ego as a result of evenness of mind. Those with spiritual intelligence, who relinquish all desires for the results of all actions, perform in righteousness activities as an offering unto the Supreme Lord are blessed with self-realisation. And being released from the bondage of birth and death they being liberated attain the eternal and everlasting spiritual worlds of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Those who perform activities as a matter of duty, free from conceptions of gain and loss, unconcerned about the resultant rewards are assuredly delivered from the bondage of birth and death in the material existence and are liberated to the spiritual realms.

There is no end to sorrow, calumny, dishonour and unfavourable circumstances, in this world. But a man of wisdom remains unperturbed, because the aim of his life is to discharge his duty to the best of his ability and capacity, for the welfare to others, without having any desire for its fruit. So, he always remains happy and unperturbed even in the most unfavourable circumstances. He does not crave for any kind of pleasure such as praise, honour and favourable circumstances etc., nor does he have a desire to prolong, such a state. He remains unruffled in the midst of favourable or hostile circumstances. He remains untainted and unaffected by good and bad, favourable and unfavourable circumstances. Experiencing good or pleasant, he is not delighted. The term, ‘wise man’ has been used, for the man who practises self-control, who performs his duty without attachment and desire for its fruit, one who discriminates between the real and the unreal and who thinks of the welfare of all creatures.

Brooding on the objects of senses, leads to attachment; attachment leads to desire; desire to anger; anger to delusion; delusion to loss of memory; loss of memory to loss of reason and finally, loss of reason leads to utter ruin. This is the best scientific explanation for the downfall of a man.  It may be further submitted that since it is impossible to control the senses who by their very nature tend to be drawn towards senses objects, it would be extremely difficult to overcome these defects; so where is the possibility of attaining steady wisdom. Apprehending such doubts Lord Krishna states that one who is free from both attachment and aversion although amidst sense objects attains the mercy of the Supreme Lord. All sorrows are only due to the agitation of mind concerned with acquiring the objects of desire and preservation of them and the grief on losing them. All experiences whether joyous or painful bring only sorrow, former because of their fleeting nature and the latter because of their being unpleasant. When the mind is in equanimity neither the pleasure nor the pain affects the person. Then the mind becomes established in Brahman immediately.

In the Discipline of detached Action, control over the mind and senses is important, because without control, desire persists and with the persistence of desire, the mind does not get fixed. Therefore, it is obligatory for an aspirant following the Discipline of Action to control his mind and senses. Without being happy there is no possibility of concentration of the mind. Without concentration of the mind there can be no meditation and without meditation it is not possible to have inner awakening or soul-cognition. Therefore it has been declared that these things are not possible for one without concentration.

As enemies are curbed by superior force, similarly, the senses can be curbed not by any human endeavour, but only by keeping them engaged in the service of the Lord. A man of stable wisdom has not the least sense of mine, with men, things and even his body and senses, because he has received them from the world. Therefore, they belong to the world, not to him. Beauty is for admiring; Knowledge is for giving; Mind is for thinking; Life is for living. Let’s enjoy every minute of living our life.

Essence of Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2.

The essence of the Bhagavad Gita unfolds in the second chapter called Sankhya Yoga (Yoga of Knowledge). The chapter begins with the grief of Arjuna and concludes with the description of a Man of Perfection. The lesson here is that, it is only when we are prepared to abandon our ego and give ourselves up totally to the Lord that He will come to our aid.

Sanjaya gives a complete picture of Arjuna’s mental state to Dhritarashtra which is overwhelmed with sorrow for his near and dear ones. All the lofty arguments of Arjuna have been summarily dismissed by Krishna as being rubbish or ignominious, more so because this attitude has come to him, at the most inappropriate moment.  Lord Krishna warns Arjuna that his affliction would bring him neither benediction, nor heaven nor fame, but would degrade and defame him, and lead him to hell. Krishna could see that the pity that has come over Arjuna was not due to mercy towards his relatives in general, especially towards Kauravas but it was prompted by his reluctance to fight against Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, etc. who were his respected elders.

Arjuna did not know whether he should fight and risk unnecessary violence, although fighting is the duty of the Kshatriyas, or whether he should refrain and live by begging. Arjuna’s desire to live by begging, although he was born in the royal household, could be due to a sense of desperation and defeat. This is what happens to most of us when confronted by unimaginable problems in our day to day life. When hysteria attacks, intellectual composure is destroyed, resulting confusion leads to inefficiency and ultimately to failure in life.

Although Arjuna was quoting scriptures and principles of religion and moral codes, it appears that he was unable to solve his real problem all by himself. He could understand that academic knowledge, scholarship, high position, money etc., are all useless in solving the problems of life; only a qualified spiritual master can help. Thus Arjuna completely surrenders to Lord Krishna as a student and requests for instructions. Arjuna qualifies himself to receive instructions from Lord Krishna by the words ‘sisyah te aham’ meaning I am your disciple.

Verse 11 of Chapter 2 is essentially the beginning of “Bhagavad Gita”. Chapter 1 and first 10 verses of Chapter 2 are used to build the background for the Gita. Verse 11 is the introduction and gives the essence of things that follows. It says ‘sorrow arises out of misunderstanding and self-realisation is the only way to overcome sorrow.

Discrimination between the real and the unreal is called Panda (wisdom), and one who has developed discrimination, is known as ‘Pandita’ (wise). Such wise men do not grieve, because they can discriminate between the real and the unreal, the imperishable self (soul) and the perishable body. The body ever perishes, therefore it is not to be grieved, while the self never perishes, and therefore it is also not to be grieved. One is grieved only because of lack of wisdom and discrimination.

Once we understand the meaning of ‘Sathya’ and ‘Mithya’, the ‘real’ and the ‘unreal’, it becomes easy for us to understand the difference between body and the soul. That which was not in the past and which will not be in the future, but seemingly exists in the present is called ‘mithya’, the unreal. And the ‘real’ the ‘sathya’ is that which defies all changes and remains the same in all the periods of time: past, present and future. Lord Krishna has talked about the past and the future, by saying that there was never a time, when they were non-existent, nor they will cease to be. As, one does not grieve for the body when it passes through babyhood, youth and old age; similarly one should not grieve, when the soul passes on, to another body. As babyhood, youth and old age are different stages of physical body, so attaining another body after death, is a stage, for the subtle and causal body. The body neither existed before birth nor will exist after death and at present also it is dying every moment. In fact the process of its death begins as soon as it comes to the womb. At the death of boyhood, youth ensues, at the death of youth, old age ensues and at the death of the old age, the embodied self passes on to another body. The body undergoes all these states. The physical body is subject to pleasure and pain, old age and disease. Although the eternal soul is embodied within the physical body; its position is not compromised or affected by the modifications of the physical body. Being immortal and indestructible, the self can neither be killed nor kill anyone and those who think so are ignorant. What is killed and gets killed are only the body and not the self. Lord Krishna explains that just as there is no grief when one discards old worn out garments and there is joy at accepting new garments in the same way the embodied soul discarding old worn out bodies joyfully accepts new ones. Another question that arises is that a man is happy by discarding old clothes and putting on new ones, whereas he feels grieved, while casting off an old body and getting into a new one. The reason is that a man by identifying himself with a body wants to live long and thinks of the death of the body, as his own death. Thus, he gets sad.

The basic principle is that no instrument can hit or destroy an element subtler than itself. Atma being subtler than the subtlest it cannot be changed by any other elements such as air, waters, fire or earth.

Verses 11 to 25 can be taken as a theme. These 15 verses explain the ways and means of overcoming sorrow. Sorrow comes due to ignorance and the only way to overcome the same is through knowledge and self-realization.