Who is a fool?
1. He who is ignorant of scriptures, yet vain, poor yet proud, and who resorts to unfair means for the acquisition of his objects, is a fool.
2. He who, forsaking his own, concerns himself with the objects of others, and who practises deceitful means for serving his friends, is called a fool.
3. He who wishes for those things that should not be desired, and forsakes those that may legitimately be desired, and who bears malice to those that are powerful, is regarded to be a foolish soul.
4. He who regards his foe as his friend, who hates and bears malice to his friend, and who commits wicked deeds, is said to be a person of foolish soul.
5. He who divulges his projects, doubts in all things, and spends a long time in doing what requires a short time, is a fool.
6. He who do not perform the “Sraddha” for the “Pitris”, nor worships the deities, nor acquire noble-minded friends, is said to be a person of foolish soul.
7. That worst of men who enters a place uninvited, and talks much without being asked, and reposes trust on untrustworthy persons, is a fool.
8. That man who being himself guilty cast the blame on others, and who though impotent gives vent to anger, is the most foolish of men.
9. That man, who, without knowing his own strength and dissociated from both virtue and profit, desires an object difficult of acquisition, without again adopting adequate means, is said to be destitute of intelligence.
10. He who punishes one that is undeserving of punishment, pays homage to persons without their knowledge, and waits upon misers, is said to be of little sense.
11. These seventeen persons are considered fools.
a. he who seeks to control a person that is incapable of being controlled;
b. he who is content with small gains;
c. he who humbly pays court to enemies;
d. he who seeks to restrain women’s frailty;
e. he who asks him for gifts who should never be asked;
f. he who boasts, having done anything;
g. he who, born in a high family, perpetrates an improper deed;
h. he who being weak always wages hostilities with one that is powerful;
i. he who talks to a person listening scoffingly;
j. he who desires to have that which is unattainable;
k. he who being a father-in-law, jests with his daughter-in-law;
l. he who boasts at having his alarms dispelled by his daughter-in-law;
m. he who scatters his own seeds in another’s field;
n. he who speaks ill of his own wife;
o. he who having received anything from another says that he does not remember it,
p. he who, having given away anything in words in holy places, boasts at home when asked to make good his words, and
q. He who strives to prove the truth of what is false.
1. The following persons do not get sleep.
- a lustful person,
- person who has lost all his wealth,
- person who has failed to achieve success,
- The person who is weak and has been attacked by a strong person.
2. Great fear springs from these three crimes, viz., theft of other’s property, outrage on other’s wives, and breach with friend.
3. These three, besides, being destructive to one’s own self, are the gates of hell, viz., lust, anger, and covetousness
4. These three should never be forsaken even in imminent danger, viz., a follower, one who seeks protection, saying,–I am yours,–and lastly one who has come to your abode.
5. These four that are calculated to remove fear, bring on fear when they are improperly performed, viz., the Agni-hotra, the vow of silence, study, and sacrifice (in general).
6. These five should be worshipped with regard by a person, viz., father, mother, fire (proper), soul and preceptor.
7. By serving these five, men attain great fame in this world, viz., the gods, the Pitris, men, beggars, and guests.
8. These five follow you wherever you go, viz., friends, foes, those that are indifferent, dependants, and those that are entitled to maintenance.
9. The six faults should be avoided by a person who wishes to attain prosperity, viz., sleep, drowsiness, fear, anger, indolence and procrastination.
- These six should be renounced like a splitting vessel in the sea, viz., a Guru who cannot expound the scriptures, a priest that is illiterate, a king that is unable to protect, a wife who speaks disagreeable words, a cow-herd who does not wish to go to the fields, and a barber who wishes to renounce a village for the woods.
- These six qualities should never be forsaken by men, viz., truth, charity, diligence, benevolence, forgiveness and patience.
- These six are instantly destroyed, if neglected, viz., Cows, service, agriculture, a wife, learning, and the wealth of a fool.
- These six forget those who have bestowed obligations on them, viz.,
10. Model Behaviour for Individuals
- There is one only defect in forgiving persons and not another; that defect is that people take a forgiving person to be weak. That defect, however, should not be taken into consideration, for forgiveness is a great power.
- Forgiveness is a virtue of the weak, and an ornament of the strong.
- Forgiveness subdues (all) in this world; what is there that forgiveness cannot achieve?
11. What can a wicked person do unto him who carries the sabre of forgiveness in his hand? Fire falling on a grassless ground is extinguished of itself. And unforgiving individual defiles himself with many enormities.
12. Righteousness is the one highest good; and forgiveness is the one supreme peace; knowledge is one supreme contentment; and benevolence, one sole happiness.
13. There is nothing more conducive of happiness and nothing more proper for a man of power and energy as forgiveness in every place and at all times. He that is weak should forgive under all circumstances. He that is possessed of power should show forgiveness from motives of virtue; and he, to whom the success or failure of his objects is the same, is naturally forgiving.