29. ASTANGAYOGA(S). Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhyana, Dharana and Samadhi.
(1)Yama – That which prevents the yogis from doing prohibited things – Ahirhsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacarya and Aparigraha are yamas.
(2)Niyama – Actions leading to Moksa. They are: (1) SAUCA – Cleanliness of the mind cleaning it of such bad qualities like jealousy. (2) TAPAS – Indifference (Samatvabhava) to the pairs of opposites like pleasure and pain, heat and cold etc. (3) Svadhyaya – pursuit of the science of salvation chanting of OM. (4) SANTOSA – remaining happy and contented. (5) ISVARA-PRANIDHANA – surrendering all actions to God.
(3) Asana. Postures of sitting firmly and comfortably. Of the many asanas the very prominent ones are : Svastikasana, Virasana, Padmasana, Siddhasana, Vastrasana, Vyaghracarmasana, Valkalasana, Kusasana, Krsnasana, Vistarasani, Mayurasana and Kurmasana. Of these Siddhasana is considered to be the best of the lot. This asana strengthens the 72,000 nerves of the human system and all the yogis prefer this to any other.
4) Pranayama – Control of Prana (Prana is the life giving breath and ayama is the checking of it) – Select an airy place and be seated in an ordinary asana facing north or east after taking your early morning bath. Sit erect with your breast slightly pushed forward and your head slightly drawn back. Then complete one Pranayama doing Puraka, Kumbhaka and Recaka.
Closing the right nostril by the thumb of the right hand and inhaling air inside through the left nostril taking 16 seconds is called Puraka. Closing the nostrils by the thumb and ring-finger arid keeping the breath for 64 seconds is called Kumbhaka. Closing the left nostril well and then exhaling through the right nostril taking 32 seconds is called Recaka. Purakas should be done through the same nostril through which you have done Recaka. (You must do at least ten Pranayamas at a time) .
5) Pratyahara – Withdrawing the mind from worldly objects and sensuous pleasures.
6) Dhyana – Keeping your mind fixed on the tip of your nose. (Meditation)
7) Dharana – Steadily thinking of things you should know (Concentration.)
8) Samadhi – The union of mind with God. This is a blissful superconscious state in which one perceives the identity of the individualised soul and cosmic spirit. (Yogabhyasa).
30. ASTAPRAMANAS – Eight means of getting correct knowledge. Pratyaksa, Anumana, Upamana, Sabda (Agama), Arthapatti, Anupalabdhi (Abhava) Sambhava, Aitihya.
31. ASTARAGAS – Raga, Dvesa, Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada and Matsarya. Raga – Desire for sensuous pleasures. Dvesa – Desire to seek vengeance on those who have offended you. Kama – Desire for worldly possessions. Krodha – Anger, Lobha – Miserliness. Moha – Delusion. Mada – Pride. Matsarya – Jealousy.
32. ASTAKARANA(S) – Manas (mind), Buddhi (intelligence), Citta (thought), Ahankara (egotism), Sankalpa in the mind (imagination) , determination, pride from egotism and Avadharana in Citta.
33. ASTAKASTA(S) – Kama (lust), Krodha (anger), Lobha (greed), Moha (delusion), Mada (arrogance), Matsarya (rivalry), Dambha (pride) and Asuya (jealousy).
34. ASTAKOPAVYASANA (S) . (1) Paisunya (2) Sahasa (3) Droha (5) Irsya (5) Asuya (6) Arthadusana (7) Vagdanda and (8) Parusya.
35. ASTAKUMBHA(S) – Suryabheda, Ujjayi, Silkkari, Sitali, Bhastika, Bhramari, Murccha and Plavini. All these have to be practised by students of Yoga.
36. Ashtangas – Eight parts of a court – the law, the judge, assessors, scribe, astrologer, gold, fire and water.
37 – Ashtangargya – an offering of eight articles – water, milk, kusa grass, curd, ghee, rice, barley and mustard.
38. Ashtakshari mantra – Om Namo Narayana is the main ashtakshari mantra.
39. Astapasas – Eight bonds which obstructs our spiritual progress. They are pity, bashfulness, fear, doubt, aversion, family conduct and birth(caste).
40. Astasiddhis – Supernatural power that accrues to a person who practices yoga. They are anima(power to assume minute forms), mahima(power to expand to huge proportions, garima (power to grow heavy, laghima(power to become weightless), prapti(capacity to obtain even the most difficult things), prakamya(having irresistible will), isitrtva(perfect mastery over body, senses and capacity to create or destroy outside objects) and vasitva(full control over the movement of physical objects).
41.Ashtachoornam – an ayurvedic medicine prepared using eight ingradients. They are zingiber officinale (sunti), piper nigrum (maricha), piper longum (pippali),carum roxburghianum (ajamoda), cuminum cyminum (jeeraka), carom bulbocastanum (krishna jeeraka), Rock salt, ferula asafoetida (hingu).
42. Ashtadravyam – eight sacred puja items that are offered to Lord Ganesha during the special puja known as Ashta Dravya Mahaganapathy Homam. The eight sacred things that are part of the Ashtadravya are: Coconuts, Molasses, Sesame Oil, Sugarcane, Lemon, Rice flakes Banana Rice. In some places Ashta Dravya are Dried coconut, puffed rice, jaggery, banana (kadali plantain), honey, sesame, sugarcane and fried paddy of rice. For some communities Ashtadravya are Coconut, Banana, Honey, Sugarcane, Ghee, Modhaka, Jaggery, Puffed rice.
43. The Ashta-Nayika – is a collective name for eight types of nayikas or heroines as classified by Bharata in Natya Shastra. The eight nayikas represent eight different states (avastha) in relationship to her hero or nayaka. The eight nayikas are: 1.Vasakasajja Nayika- “one dressed up for union” 2.Virahotkanthita Nayika – “one distressed by separation” 3.Svadhinabhartruka Nayika – “one having her husband in subjection” 4.Kalahantarita Nayika – “one separated by quarrel” 5.Khandita Nayika – “one enraged with her lover” 6.Vipralabdha Nayika – “one deceived by her lover” 7.Proshitabhartruka Nayika – “one with a sojourning husband” 8.Abhisarika Nayika – “one going to meet her lover”
44. Ashtapushpam – There are eight flowers renowned as Ashtapushpam much preferred for the worship of the Lord. They are arugu, chanbakam, punnakam, nandhiyavattai, padhiri, brugati, arali and thumbai. Philosophically speaking there are 8 Flowers that is ideal for GOD worship. They are Ahimsa prathamam pushpam (Non-violence is the First Flower), Pushpam Indriya Nigraham (Control of the senses is the Second Flower) Sarva Bhootha Daya Pushpam (Being Kind towards all the living beings is the Third Flower) Kshama Pushpam Visheshataha (Forgiving is the real special Flower – the Fourth Offering), Shanthi Pushpam (Peace is the Fifth Flower), Tapah Pushpam (Penance is the Sixth Flower), Dhyanah Pushpam (Meditation is the Seventh Flower) and Sathyam Ashta Vidha Pushpam (Truth is the Eighth Flower)
45. Ashta-bharya(s) – Eight principal wives of Lord Krishna: Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Nagnajiti, Bhadra and Lakshmana.
46. Ashtabhogani – One can have eight types of enjoyment from land ownership. They are (1) nidhi – treasure troves, (2) nikshepa – deposits or accumulation of the soil, (3) jala – fishing rights in the waters, (4) pashana – quarrying rights in the hills, (5) akshini – actual income, (6) agami – future income, (7) siddha – income from land already under cultivation, (8) sadhya – land that may be bought under cultivation in future.
47. Ashtamangala Gruta – An ayurvedic medicine prepared using these eight ingradients. 1.Patola (Tricosanthes dioica) 2, Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus) 3. Mustha (Cyperus rotundus) 4. Madhuka (Glycerrhiza glabra) 5. Katukarohini (Pichrorhiza kurroa) 6. Usira(Vetivera zizanoides) 7. Chandana (Santalum album ) 8. Pippali (Piper longum). All these items are prepared in cow’s ghee and water.
48. Ashtarasa – Bharata Muni classifies the Rasa under eight categories (ashtarasa) and gives the corresponding Bhava which gives rise to the rasa. These are known as Sthayi Bhava or pervading stable emotion. They are rati(love), hasa(mirth), shoka(grief), krodha(anger), utsaha(heroism), bhaya(fear), jugupsa(disgust), and vismaya(wonder). The corresponding eight Rasa are sringara(amorous), hasya(humorous), karuna(pathetic), raudra(furious), vira(valorous), bhayanaka(horrific), bibhatsa(repugnant), and adbhuta(wondrous).