Number 10 was the Pythagorean symbol of perfection or completeness. Humans have ten fingers and ten toes. Counting on fingers probably led to the decimal number system, with its symbols 0–9 and its place values.
1. The ten books on rhetorics. (Alankaragranthas) (1) The Sahityadarpana of Visvanatha (2) The Kavyadarsa of Dandi (3) Kavyaprakasa of Manmata (4) Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya (5) Kavyalankarasutravrtti of Vamana (6) Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojadeva (7) Alankarasarvasva of Bhamaha (8) Alankarakaustubha of Kavikarnapuraka (9) Kuvalayananda of Appaya Diksita (10) Candraloka of Jayadeva.
2. Ten Indriyas. (Organs of sense) – There are ten organs of sense comprising five Jnanendriyas and five Karmendriyas.
3. Ten Commandments – The commandments of Christ are ten in number. (1 )There is no other God but Yehova. (2) Do not install idols and worship them. (3) Do not use God’s name vainly. (4) Do not do work on the Sabbath day but observe that day as sacred.(5) Respect your parents. (6) Do not kill. (7) Do not commit adultery. (8) Do not steal. (9) Do not give false evidence. (10) Do not desire for others’ possessions.
4. The ten Kamavasthas – (1) Abhilasa (desire). (2) Cintana (Reflection). (3) Smrti (remembrance). (4) Gunakathana (Talking about the good qualities). (5) Udyoga (effort) (6) Pralapa (gabble) (7) Unmada (madness) (8) Vyadhi (disease) (9) Jadata (slothfulness) (10) Marana (death).
5. The ten gunas – The good qualities are ten in number. (1) Satya (truth) (2) Vinaya (modesty) (3) Devataradhana (worship of God) (4) Adhyayana (study) (5) Kulasuddhi (purity of family) (6) Susila (good conduct) (7) Sakti ( strength ),( 8 ) Dhana (wealth) (9) Surata (valour) (10) Yuktiyukta Sambhasana (intelligent and rational talk).
6. Rsi gotras – There are ten Rsi Gotras (families of sages): (1) Bharadvaja gotra (2) Kausika gotra (3) Vatsya gotra (4) Kaundinya gotra (5) Kasyapa gotra (6) Vasistha gotra (7) Jamadagnya gotra (8) Visvamitra gotra (9) Gautama gotra (10) Atreya gotra. (All these ten gotras were brought down to Daksinabharata by ParaSurama).
7. Camatkaras – There are ten kinds of Camatkara (poetical charm) according to the poet Ksemendra. (1) Avicarita ramaniya (2) Vicaryamanaramaniya (3) Samastasuktavyapi (4) Suktaikadesavyapi (5) Sabdagata (6) Arthagata (7) Ubhayagata (8) Alankaragata (9) Vrttigata (10) Rasagata.
8. Cittavasthas – There are ten states of mind. (1) Kama (lust) (2) Sankalpa (imagination) (3) Vicikitsa (doubt ) (4) Sraddha (attention) (5) Asraddha (negligence) (6) Dhrti (resolution) (7) Adhrti (wavering) (8) Lajja (shame) (9) Dhi (devotion) (10) Bhiti (fear).
9. Nadas – There are ten nadas (sounds) according to Harhsopanisad. (1) Ciniti (2) Cincim (3) Kanthanada (4) Sankhanada (5) Tantrinada (6) Talanada (7) Venunada (8) Mrdanganada (9) Bherinada (10) Meghanada.
10. Sins (papas) – There are ten papas (sins). (1) Murder (2) Theft (3) Adultery (4) Calumny (5) Harshness (6) Deceit (7) Nonsensical utterances (8) Inflicting pain on others (9) Desire for another’s property (10) Atheism.
11. Dasapuspas – There are ten holy flowers. – (1) Puvankuruntai (2) Muyalcceviyan (Sutafreni Anthericum Tuberosum ) (3) Karuka (Ananta Bent grass ) (4) Nilappana (Talamulika Curculigo Orchioides) (5) Kayyanya (Bhrngaraja Trailing Eclipta) (6) Visnukranti (Krsnakranti Clikoria Ternatea) (7) Cherupula (Illecobrum lanatum) (8) Tirutali (Srihastini Asparagus Racemosus) (9) Ulinja (The smoothleaved heart-pea “Cardiopermum Halicacabum”) (10) Mukkutti (Gandakali Sensitive plant).
12. Prajapatis – The prajapatis are ten in number : (1) Marici (2) Angiras (3) Atri (4) Pulaha (5) Pulastya (6) Kratu (7) Vasistha (8) Daksa (9) Bhrgu (10) Narada.
13. Pranas – There are ten Pranas (life-winds). (I) Prana (2) Apana (3) Vyana (4) Samana (5) Udana (6)Naga (7) Kurma (8) Krkara (9) Devadatta (10) Dhananjaya.
14. Strength – There are ten items of strength. (A). (1) Jnana (knowledge) (2) Prajna (wisdom) (3) Virya (heroism) (4) Ksama (patience) (5) Sila (uprightness) (6) Dana (charity) (7) Bala (might) (8) Upaya (resourcefulness) (9) Dhyana (intuition) (10) Pranidhi (power of observation).
(B). (1) Buddhi (intelligence) (2) Ksama (patience) (3) Virya (heroism) (4) Dhyana (divine intuition) (5) Jnana (knowledge) (6) Krpa (grace) (7) Sila ( uprightness) (8) Bala (9) Dana (10) Upeksa (inattention).
(C). (1) Mulabala (strength inherent) (2) Bandhubala (Strength of relatives) (3) Rajasainyabala ( strength of the royal army) (4) Svakiya Senabala (strength of own army) (5) Bahya senabala (strength of reinforcement from outside) (6) Kattalabala (strength of foresters) (7) Gajabala (strength of the elephants) (8) Turagabala (strength of horses) (9) Bandhusainyabala (strength of the army of relatives) (10) Padatibala (strength of foot soldiers)
15. Dasamula. There are ten important medicinal roots: (1) Kumbil (Cayaphal). (2) Kuvala (Sriphala Aegle Marmelos) (3) Munja (Sriparna Permna Spinosa) (4) Patiri (Krsnavrnda Trumpet Flower Tree) (5) Palakappayyani (Sonaka Bignonia Indica) (6) Orila (Padmacarini Hibiscus Mutabilies) (7) Muvila (Kalasi Hedysarum Lagopodioides) (8) Karuttacunta (Pracodani small egg-plant) (9) Veluttacunta (white pracodani) (10) Nerinjil (Gokantaka Barleria longifolia).
16. Limbs of the king (Angas) – The ten angas of a king are (1) Nadu (country) (2) Mala (mountain) (3) Nadi (river) (4) Oru (village) (5) Kottara (palace) (6) Kutira (horse) (7) Ana (elephant) (8) Murasu (War drum) (9)Koti (flag) (10) Cenkol (sceptre).
17. Rupakas (dramatic compositions) – There are ten classes of rupakas – (1). Nataka. (drama). The chief sentiment in a drama should be one of the three following rasas : (
(A)Virarasa (sentiment of heroism), (B) Srngararasa (sentiment of love), (C) Karunarasa (pathos). There should be five to ten acts. The singer should be a famous one. It must have Pancasandhis (five junctures). Sakuntala and Uttararamacarita are perfect Natakas. (2) Prakarana. In this kind of drama the plot is invented or fictitious and deals with the social life of the day. The hero of the play can be either a hero or a meek person. The heroine can be a noble lady or a harlot. The main sentiment should be Sringara (love). Malatimadhava, Mrcchakatika are examples of Prakaranas. (3) Bhana. There is only one character and one Act in this species. The plot is fictitious and the hero is an expert humorous libertine. Lilamadhura and Mahisamangala Bhana are examples. (4) Prahasana. This is a farce. The plot is fictitious and is in the nature of a low comedy. Satire is the chief sentiment of this species. (5) Dima. This has got four Acts. The plot will be famous and the chief sentiment will be one of wrath and fierceness. There will be no Viskambha (interlude between Acts to give connection to the story between Acts) or Pravesaka (introducer explaining portions of the plot which may not be put on stage but an understanding of which is necessary to follow the story). There must be sixteen haughty and excited characters like a Deva, Gandharva, Yaksa and Raksasa. Tripuradahana is an example. (6) Vyayoga. Female characters will be rare in this kind of dramas. There will be only one Act. The sentiments of satire or love or calmness should not be predominant. The hero should be a famous divine sage. Saugandhikaharana is an example. (7) Samavakara. The plot should be based on a story of the devas and asuras. There will be three Acts. There must be twelve brave heroes in it. The chief sentiment will be heroism. The seizure of a city, declaration of war or a big fire should be part of the play. Sumudramathana is an example. (8) Vithi. This will have one Act and one actor. Any of the sentiments can be portrayed. The story must be completed by Akasabhasita (speech to which reply is given on the stage as if spoken from the sky) Candrika is an example. (9) Atika. This has only one Act. The heroes should be people of the prakrta type. Pathos is the chief sentiment. This should contain the pathetic wail of many women. This is called Utsrstikanka also. Sarmistha-Yayati is an example. (10). lhamrga. This will contain four Acts. The heroes of the play should be valiant. There must be ten Pataka- Nayakas (producers of different kinds of episodical incidents in the drama) . They will be Uddhatas (haughty and excited persons).
18. Metals – There are ten chief metals: (1) Gold (2) Silver (3) Copper (4) Tin (5) Lead (6) Zinc (7) Iron (8) Steel (9) Brass (10) Mercury.
19. Avataras – The incarnations of Visnu are ten. Matsya – The Fish, Kurma – The Turtle, Varaha – The boar, Narasimha – The Man-Lion, Vamana – The Dwarf Brahmin, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki – this final reincarnation has not yet happened.