## Symbolism in Numbers – No 9(Part 2)

1. K 9 – The word “K-9” pronounces the same as canine and is used in many U.S. police departments to denote the police dog unit. Despite not sounding like the translation of the word canine in other languages, many police and military units around the world use the same designation.
2. Mathematics – Nine is the highest single-digit number in the decimal system.
1. In base 10 a positive number is divisible by nine if and only if its digital root is 9.[9] That is, if you multiply nine by any natural number, and repeatedly add the digits of the answer until it is just one digit, you will end up with nine:

i.    2 × 9 = 18 (1 + 8 = 9)

ii.    3 × 9 = 27 (2 + 7 = 9)

iii.    9 × 9 = 81 (8 + 1 = 9)

iv.    121 × 9 = 1089 (1 + 0 + 8 + 9 = 18; 1 + 8 = 9)

v.    234 × 9 = 2106 (2 + 1 + 0 + 6 = 9)

vi.    578329 × 9 = 5204961 (5 + 2 + 0 + 4 + 9 + 6 + 1 = 27; 2 + 7 = 9)

vii.    482729235601 × 9 = 4344563120409 (4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 9 = 45; 4 + 5 = 9)

There are other interesting patterns involving multiples of nine:

viii.    12345679 x 9 = 111111111

ix.    12345679 x 18 = 222222222

x.    12345679 x 81 = 999999999

xi.

1. Biology – On the other hand, 9 seems to be particularly associated with the process of human birth.  In addition to the 9 months of gestation, and 9 openings of the body (all of which operate in some fashion in connection with conception and gestation), there is also the fact that the tail of the sperm is made of 9 twisted threads, which after uniting with the egg, forms a centriole, which is a circle of 9 parallel tubes.
2. The Nine Muses – in Greek mythology, the nine patron goddesses of the arts; daughters of ZEUS and Mnemosyne, a TITAN who personified memory. They were: Calliope (epic poetry and eloquence), Euterpe (music and lyric poetry), Erato (love poetry), Polyhymnia (oratory or sacred poetry), Clio (history), Melpomene (tragedy), Thalia (comedy), Terpsichore (choral song and dance), and Urania (astronomy).
3. NINE IN NUMEROLOGY – Nine is composed of the all-powerful 3×3. Nine – the result of 3×3, nine represents an even greater holiness found in three. It is the Triple Triad. IT represents completion; fulfilment; attainment; beginning and the end; the whole number; a celestial and angelic number. Nine represents the Earthly Paradise. Nine is seen as an incorruptible number. It is the number of the circumference, its division into 90 degrees and into 360 for the entire circumference. Nine is symbolized by the two triangles which are a symbol of male, fire, mountain and female, water, and cave principles.
4. Interesting facts about Number 9.
1. Nine (known or observed) planets in our solar system.
2. Nine month gestation period in human birth process. Note: might this be the process during which the human consciousness becomes fused with, or attuned to, the resonant frequency of “9”?
3. Human – normal respiration rate is 18 times per minute
4. Human – normal heartbeat is 72 times a minute
5. Average number of heartbeats per hour is 4,320
6. Average number of respirations per hour is 1,080
7. Average number of respirations per 24 hour period is 25,920
8. There are 360 degrees in a circle
9. Traditionally, the Romans were known to bury their dead on the 9th day of the death
10. In the Hindu tradition the present cycle of time consists of 432,000 years. This is called the “Kali Yuga”. The great cycle in which the Kali Yuga falls consists of 4,320,000 years
11. In Roman Catholic Europe, the cathedral bells ring 3 + 3 + 3 (morning, noon, evening) and then it rings 9 times to celebrate the virgin birth of the Savior (ibid.)
12. The numerological value of the word LOVE is 54.
13. The word ENLIGHTENMENT is the only word in the English language in which the letters E-I-G-H-T-E-E-N appear in that order (Lyons, The Language Crystal,1988)
14. It has often been said the game of baseball is a metaphor for life. The game does have several connections to the number 9. There are 9 players on a team. The bases are 90 feet apart. There are 9 innings to a regular game. There are probably more, but I kind of like this rather obscure one: The Knickerbocker Baseball Club drafted the rules establishing the 9-player team in 1845. 1+8+4+5=18 (1+8=)!
15. According to Michael Lawrence Morton (archaeo-cryptographer) the known arc distance on Earth from Pole to equator is exactly 5400 nautical miles. Also the polar circumference of Earth is 21,600 nautical miles, 7920 is the number of statute miles of the mean diameter of Earth.
16. In order to become a Zen Master, one must solve 54 koans, or puzzles which require deep insight and enlightenment (Ibid.).
17. Many Buddhists and Hindus wear sets of 108 beads.
5. In Chinese Culture – Besides 6 and 8, Chinese people like 9 very much as 9 has the same pronunciation with 久 (Jiu, meaning everlasting). On the Valentine’s Day, a man usually presents his lover 99 or 999 roses to symbolize the eternal love. Similarly, according to the traditional Chinese marriage custom, the bridegroom has to give a Red Packet to his bride’s family, in which CNY 9,999 or CNY 99,999 is enclosed to bless a long-lasting marriage of the couple.
6.  Nine Fruits of Holy Spirit – The Fruit of the Holy Spirit is a biblical term that sums up the nine visible attributes of a true Christian life. They are love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control.
7. Nine Spiritual Gifts – In Christianity, spiritual gifts are endowments given by the Holy Spirit. These are the supernatural graces which individual Christians need to fulfill the mission of the church. They are Word of wisdom, Word of knowledge, Faith, Gifts of healings, Miracles, Prophecy, Distinguishing between spirits, Tongues, Interpretation of tongues
8. Navadhatu – Nine metals – The nine metals are the seven sacred metals, corresponding to the sacred seven planets: gold (Sun), silver (moon), mercury (Mercury), copper (Venus), iron (Mars), tin (Jupiter), antimony (Saturn) plus nickel and zinc make nine.
9. Navapatrika – Nine leaves – Navpatrika, are the leaves of nine plants used during Durga Puja rituals in Bengal, Orissa and other parts of Eastern India. The nine plants that are used include plantain (Banana), Kachvi or Kacci or Kachu, Turmeric, Barley, wood apple (Bilva), pomegranate, Asoka, manaka or Mana and rice paddy or Dhanya.
10. Navamegham – Nine clouds – Savartham, avartham, pushkalam, dronam, neelam, kalam, varunam, vayamyam and thamam.
11. Navasayakam – 9 inferior castes – cowherd, Gardner, oilman, weaver, confectioner, water carrier, potter, blacksmith and barber.
12. Navamukhi Rudraaksha – In the concept of Rudraaksha; Navamukhi (nine faced) is known to represent Nava Durga (nine forms of the Goddess) and its ruling planet is Kethu. It is believed to bestow upon the wearer energy, dynamism, fearlessness and spiritual development. It is also used as a remedy for Kethu and Venus related problems.

## Symbolism in Numbers – No. 9

Nine – Number nine (9) is the most intriguing digit of all the numbers. It is an absolute number which when multiplied by any number always reproduces itself; the sum of digits in the product will always be nine. In Sanskrit # nine is known as Nava; and Navaka means group of nine, fresh, new, blooming etc. It is such a fascinating, sacred and divine number that it is associated with several doctrines and concepts of Hindu philosophy, religion and spirituality.

1. Nine grahas (nine planets) – Sun, Moon, Mars, Budha (Mercury), Guru (Jupiter), Sukra (Venus), Sani (Saturn), Rahu and Ketu.
2. Navarasa – Navarasa means Nine Emotions in which Nava signifies nine and Rasa signifies Emotions.The nine emotions included in Navarasa are Shringara (love), Hasya(laughter), Karuna (kind-heartedness or compassion), Raudra (anger), Veera ( courage), Bhayanaka (terror), Bheebhatsya (disgust), Adbutha (surprise), and Shantha (peace or tranquility). These are the emotions that human shows according to the situations. Bharata Muni has explained these nine emotions or Navarasa in his treatise Natyashasthra.
3. Nine Dosa – Gulika, Visti, Gandantam, Visa, Usna, ekargalam, Sarpasiras, latam and Vaidhrtam.
4. Nine Karmasaksin(s) – Surya, Candra, Yama, Kala, Akasa, Vayu, Agni, Jala and Bhumi.
5. Nine Rivers – Sarasvati, Vaitarani, Apaga, Mandakini, Madhusrava, Amlu, Kausiki, Drsadvati and Hiranvatl.
6. Nine Duti – Duti, Dasi, Sakhi, Ceti, Dhatreyi, Prativesini, Lingini, Silpini and Svastri.
7. Nine treasures (nidhis) – Mahapadma, Padma, Sankha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, Nila and Kharva.
8. Nine Prajapatis – Bhrgu, Marici, Atri, Daksa, Kardama, Pulaha, Pulastya, Angiras and Kratu.
9. Nine Yogins – Kavi, Hari, Antariksa. Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avihotra, Dramida, Camasa and Karabhajana.
10. Nine Varsa – (Sub continents). Bharatavarsa, Kimpurusavarsa. Harivarsa, Ilavrtavarsa, Ramyakavarsa, Hiranmayavarsa, Kuruvarsa, Bhadrasvavarsa and Ketumalavarsa.
11. Nine kinds of Rajas – Sarvabhauma, Adhiraja. Narendra, Parsnika, Pattadhrk, Mandalesvara, Bhattabhak, Praharaka and Srotragrahi.
13. The nine planets discovered in our solar system, are in the order starting from Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
14. There are nine forms of devotion – Sravana (hearing of God’s Lilas and stories), Kirtana (singing of His glories), Smarana (remembrance of His name and presence), Padasevana (service of His feet), Archana (worship of God), Vandana (prostration to Lord), Dasya (cultivating the Bhava of a servant with God), Sakhya (cultivation of the friend-Bhava) and Atmanivedana (complete surrender of the self). A devotee can practice any method of Bhakti which suits him best. Through that he will attain Divine illumination.
15. Human body is considered as a city with nine gates – navadware pure dehe. The nine openings are ears (2), eyes (2), nostrils (2), mouth and two excretory openings.
16. Nava Durga – Goddess Durga is said to have manifested in nine different forms known as Nava Durga. They are Shailaputhri; Brahmacharini; Chandraghanta; Kooshmaanda; Skhandhamatha; Kaathyaayani; Kaalarathri; Maha Gouri; and Siddhidhaathri.  Navadurga Stuthi is based on the above names. Goddess Durga is worshipped for nine days during Navrathri festivals.
17. Nava Naarasimha – Famous pilgrim centre, Ahobilam is called Nava Naarasimha Kshethra where, Lord Naarasimha is said to have manifested in nine different forms (Nava Naarasimha) within Ahobilam. They are Jwaala Naarasimha, Ahobila Naarasimha, Maalola Naarasimha, Krodha Naarasimha, Kaaranja Naarasimha, Bhaargava Naarasimha, Yogaananda Naarasimha, Chatravata Naarasimha, and Paavana Naarasimha. These nine forms of Lord Naarasimha depicting nine types of reactions are said to be the governing lords of Navagrahas. Worshiping these nine forms of Lord Naarasimha is believed to a good remedy for Navagraha Dosha.
18. Nava Brahmas – Mareechi; Angeerasa; Pulastya; Pulaha; Krathu; Daksha; Brugu; Vasishta and Athri are the sons of Lord Brahma grouped as Nava Brahmas.
19. Nava Naaga – Anantha; Vaasuki; Sesha; Padmanaabha; Kambala; Sankhapaala; Dhaartharaashtra; Takshaka; and Kaali are grouped as nine great Naaga Devathas (Serpent Gods) who are adored in Hindu religion.
20. Nava Dhaanya – A group of nine grains generally associated with Navagrahas are; wheat (Sun), rice (Moon), red gram (Mars), green gram (Mercury), Bengal gram (Jupiter), black eyed peas (Venus), black sesame (Saturn), black gram (Rahu), and horse gram (Kethu). They are also used as a remedy for Navagraha dosha.
21. There are many common saying such as
1. A stitch in time saves nine
2. I am in cloud nine
3. A cat has nine lives.
4. They fell like nine pins.
22. NAVAKANYAKA – An important item of Navaratripuja (A festival of 9 days as observed by Sakti worshippers) is the worship of virgins. The nine kinds of virgins (from two to ten years in age) thus worshipped are called Navakanyakas (nine virgins). A girl two years old is called Kumari, three years old Trimurti; four years old Kalyani; five years old Rohini; six years old Kali; Seven years old Candika; eight years old Sambhavi; nine years old Durga and ten years old Subhadra. These girls are called Navakanyakas.
23. NAVARATNAS (The nine precious Jewels )  – The nine precious stones are pearl, ruby, Chrysoprasus, beryl, diamond, coral, jacinth, emerald and sapphire.

(Mukta – manikya – vaidurya – gomeda vajra –vidrumau, Padmarago maratakarh nilasceti yathakramam).

1. NAVARATNAS – Legend says that there were nine scholars who handled philosophy and arts, in the palace of the emperor Vikramaditya. These nine scholars were known by the name Navaratnas (the nine jewels) . They were Dhanvantari, Ksapanaka, Amarasirnha, Sanku, Vetalabhatta, Ghatakarpara,Kalidasa,Varahamihira and Vararuci.

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## Symbolism in Numbers – No 4 Part 2

1. Tyajyas – (things to be shunned) . A. Horse returning after bath, elephant in its rut, love-lorn bull and wicked scholar. B. Evil action, unhealthy region, evil wife and bad foods.
2. Danas (Gifts) – Gifts daily given without expecting return or result is Nityadana. Gifts given to scholars (pundits) for the sake of alleviation of or redemption from sin are Naimittikadana. Gifts given for welfare and prosperity is Kamyakadana. Offering made to propitiate God is Vimala.
3. Nayakas (Heroes)-  Dhirodatta, Dhiroddhata, Dhiralalita, Dhirasanta.
4. Naris( Women) – Padmini, Sankhini, Citrini, and Hastini.
5. Pramanas( Means of valid knowledge) – Pratyaksa, Anumana, Upamana, and Sabda.
6. Moksas (Salvation). Salokya, Samipya, Sarupya and Sayujya.
7. Yoga –  Jnanayoga, Bhaktiyoga, Karmayoga and Dhyanayoga.
8. Satrus (Enemies) –  Mother leading an immoral life; father who incurs debt; foolish son and beautiful wife.
9. Sastras-  Nitisastra, Tarkasastra, Manusmrti and Kamasastra.
10. Caturamla – Four sour substances – vetasa, vrikshamla, brihaj-jambira and nimbaka.
11. Caturushana – four hot spices – black and long pepper, dry ginger and the root of long pepper.
12. Caturbhadra – Extremely auspicious objects of human desire A. Dharma, Kama, Artha and bala. B. Kiti, ayus, yashas and bala. C. Dharma, jnana, aisvarya and vairagya.  D. dana, jnana, saurya and bhoga.
13. Caturyuga – There are four yugas, satya, dwapara, treat and kali.
14. Caturmedha – one who Has offered four sacrifices – ashva, purusha, sarva and pitri medha.
15. Caturdhama – the four places of pilgrimage in the four corners of India, viz. Badrinath in the North, Rameswaram in the South, Jagannatha Puri in East and Dwaraka in the West. Every Hindu must visit these four places in his lifetime.
16. Catus-sana – the four “manasaputras” of Brahma. Sanaka, Sanatkumara, Sanatsujata, and Sanandana.
17. Four Noble Truths – Dukkha – The Noble Truth of Suffering , Samudaya – The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering , Nirodha – The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering , Magga – The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering
18. The Four Heavenly Kings – are said to currently live in the Cāturmahārājika heaven on the lower slopes of Mount Sumeru. They are the protectors of the world and fighters of evil, each able to command a legion of supernatural creatures to protect the Dharma. They are Vaiśravaṇa (Kubera) meaning he who hears everything,  Virūḍhaka, he who causes to grow, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, he who upholds the realm  and Virūpākṣa , he who sees all.
19. Four Foundations of Mindfulness in Buddhism – contemplation of the body, contemplation of feelings, contemplation of mind, contemplation of mental objects
20. The mammalian heart consists of four chambers.
21. There are four basic states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
22. Most furniture has four legs – tables, chairs, etc.
23. Most vehicles, including motor vehicles, and particularly cars/automobiles and light commercial vehicles have four road wheels.
24. In cricket, a four is scored when the ball crosses the boundary after touching the ground at least once. Taking four wickets in four consecutive balls is typically referred to as a double hat trick (two consecutive, overlapping hat tricks).
25. The phrase “four-letter word” is used to describe most swear words in the English language, as most swear words do indeed possess four letters.
26. Four seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter.
27. Four cardinal virtues: justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude.
28. Four suits of playing cards: hearts, diamonds, clubs, spades.
29. Four estates: politics, administration, judiciary, journalism. Especially in the expression “Fourth Estate”, this means journalism.
30. Four is the only number that has the same amount of letters as its actual value.
31. Four dimensions of modern science: length, breadth, width, and time.
32. In Japan, the four brings misfortune. They avoid to pronounce it because the same word means “the death
33. Several prominent facts come to associate the number four to the cross of the Christ: the four segments of the cross; the four kinds of wood which were used for the construction of the cross of Christ : the palm tree, the olive-tree, the cedar and the cypress, the four letters I.N.R.I. engraved on the cross.
34. The Buddhism is based on the four truths taught by “Cakkya-Mouni”: “Kou”, the pain exists in the birth, the old age, the disease, the attachment, etc.; “Tou”, it is the sharing of all the creatures: its origin is the thirst of existence, pleasures, power; “Mou”, the man must be liberated by the annihilation of the desire; “Tau”, the means to arrive at this setting free is the practice of the “eight branches of the noble path”.
35. The quaternary of the motto of the alchemists: to know, to want, to dare, to hush.
36. Four steps to accountability – To see, to own, to solve and to do.
37. The Quran authorizes the polygamy, allowing a man to have as far as four women.
38. According to C.G. Jung, psyches of the man are governed by the following four psychological functions: the thought, the intuition, the feeling and the sentiment.
39. The four fundamental parts of the organic chemistry: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitroge
40. nThe cow’s stomach is divided in four digestive compartments: reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum
41. Four cardinal directions: north, south, east, west.
42. Four Temperaments: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic

## Symbolism in Numbers – No.4 – Part 1

Four – in Christianity number 4 is symbolically linked to the Cross and employed to signify what is solid and that which could be touched and felt. The symbolic meaning of number Four deals with stability and invokes the grounded nature of all things. Consider the four seasons, four directions, four elements all these amazingly powerful essences wrapped up in the nice square package of Four. Fours represent solidity, calmness, and home. A recurrence of Four in your life may signify the need to get back to your roots, center yourself, or even “plant” yourself. Fours also indicate a need for persistence and endurance.

Four also has many symbolic significance and meaning in Hinduism. Various things mentioned in the Puranas having some association with four are given below

1. The aim of life (purusharthas) is four – dharma (righteousness), artha (wealth), Kama (desire), and moksha (salvation).
2. Four varnas as told by Krishna – Brahmin, Kshatriya, vaisya, sudra.
3. Brahma has four faces and four hands.
4. Four directions – north, east, west and south.
5. Four ways of influencing and motivating others – being generous, uttering kind words, giving appropriate teachings and being consistent with words and actions.
6. Four sights that affected Siddhartha deeply and made him realize the sufferings of all beings that compelled him to begin the spiritual journey – an old man, a sick man, a dead man and an ascetic.
7. Most vehicles have 4 wheels.
8. Four basic functions in mathematics – addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
9. Four seasons – spring, summer, autumn and winter.
10. Four yuga – satyayuga, dwaparayuga, tredhayuga and Kaliyuga.
11. Four vedas – rig, yajur, sama and atharva
12. Four types of relationships – spiritual, sensual, sensical and exemplary.
13. Excess of these four destroys a person – hunting (shopping), drinking, womanizing and gambling.
14. Four distances – In the case of an elephant one must keep a distance of 1000 meter, a horse 100 meter, horned animals 10 meter, evil people, unlimited number of meters.
15. Four Adhikarins – Manda (the very ordinary)) Madhyama (medium standard), Uttama (best) and Uttamottama (the very best)
16. Four Anubandhas. (Factors) – In philosophy there are four factors called Visaya (subject matter), Prayojana (purpose), Sambandha (relationship between factors) and Adhikarin (the deserving or eligible person).
17. Four Antahkaranas (Internal organs] – Manas (mind) , Buddhi (intellect), Cittam (heart )and Ahankara (ego). Imagination is the function of the mind, decision that of Buddhi, to retain knowledge gained in orderly form is the function of Cittam and self-respect that of Ahankara.
18. Four Anvavayas – Satyam(truthfulness), Dama (Self control), Arjavam (straightforwardness) and Anrsamsyam (not to be cruel).
19. Anvavedas – Yajna (sacrifical offerings) , Dana (alms-giving, gifts), Adhyayana (learning) and Tapas (penance) .
20. Four Apatrikaranas (Not suited to the particular station or place in life) – Brahmins are forbidden from receiving bribes, engaging in trades, service of Sudras and uttering lies.
21. Abhinayas (Acting) – Angikam (where gestures and bodily actions are used to convey ideas), Sattvika, Subjective feelings expressed by perpiration etc. Aharyam (extraneous) and Vacikam (by words of mouth)
22. Abhyasavisayas – (Subjects for practice and training) – Vinaya (humility), Damana (control of mind), Indriyanigraha (controlling the sense-organs) and Bhutadaya (kindness)
23. Amritas (Nectar) – Good wife, talk of children, present from King and honorable food.
24. Alankaras(Ornaments) – For the stars, Moon; for women, husband; for earth, King and for all, education (learning) .
25. Alankarasadhanas – According to rhetorics, Atisaya (excellence), Samya (simile), Vastavam (matter of fact, as it is) and Slesa (one word with two meanings).
26. Avasthas (States, conditions) – A. Saisavam (childhood), Kaumaram ( boyhood), Yauvanam (youth) and Vardhakyam (old age). B. Jagrat(wakefulness), Svapnam (dream ), Susupti (sleep) and Turiyam (being one with the supreme soul).
27. Astraprayogalaksyas (Objects of shooting arrows) – Sthiram, Calam, Calacalam, Dvayacalam.  When the archer and the object of his shooting remain motionless the object is called Sthiram. When the object is moving but the archer is not, the object is called Calam. When the case is just the opposite of the above it is Calacalam. When both are moving it is called Dvayacalam.
28. Akhyayikagunas (Factors of the novel )-  Kathabandha (plot or theme), Patraprakatanam (exposition of characters), Rasapusti (sentiment) and Gadyariti (prose style) .
29. Abharanas (Ornaments) – For man, shape or form; for form, quality or merit; for quality, knowledge or wisdom and for wisdom, patience or forbearance.
30. Ayudhas ( Weapons) – Mukta, Amukta, Muktamukta and Yantramukta.
31. Avaranas(Covering, Protection) – For earth the sea, for house the compound wall, for country the King, for women chastity.
32. Aharadis (Food etc.) – Ahara ( food) , Nihara (Evacuation), Maithuna (sexual act), Nidra (sleep).
33. Aharavastus(edibles) – Khadyam (eaten by munching with teeth and chewing), Peyam (that which is drunk), Lehyam (licked with the tongue )and Bhojyam (that which is not included in the above three).
34. Rnas (Obligations, debts) – Debts due to Devas, Rsis, Pitrs and Men. One pays back one’s debts to Devas by performing yajnas. By Svadhyaya (selfstudy) and tapas one pays the debt due to Rsis; by procreation of children and libation offerings that due to Pitrs and by truthfulness, hospitality etc. that due to people are repaid.
35. Rtviks –  Adhvaryu, Udgata, Hota and Brahma. The first of the four should be an erudite scholar in Yajurveda, the second in Samaveda, the third in Atharvaveda and the fourth in all the four Vedas.
36. Kavis (Poets)- He who boasts about himself in secret is called Udatta; he who cries down others and indulges in self-praise is known as Uddhata; he who proclaims others’ merits is called Praudha and he who shows humility is called Vinita.
37. Kukkutagunas  (Traits of the Cock) – To rise early in the morning, to struggle for existence, to share whatever is got with relations and to work and earn one’s own food these are the qualities of the Cock.
38. Grahyas (Acceptables) – A. Nectar even from poison, good advice even from boys, good action even from enemies and noble and chaste brides even from low families are to be welcomed. B. Literacy (learning of alphabets) should be accepted from brahmins, food from mother, pan from wife and bangles from King.
39. Caturangas  – Elephant, Horse, Chariot and Infantry.
40. Asramas –  Brahmacharya (student life), Garhasthya (married life), Vanaprastha (anchorite, forest-life) and Sannyasa (Renunciation).
41. Yugas –  Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali.
42. Vargas –  Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa.
43. Upayas  (Expedients).- Sama, Dana, Bheda, Danda.
44. Cikitsapddas (Four elements in the treatment of patients) – Vaidya (doctor), Rogin (patient), Ausadham (medicine) and Paricaraka (attendant).
45. Jatis  (Castes’) – Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra.